Nierówności społeczne a wzrost gospodarczy z. 62(2)/2020


Ostatnio nadesłane materiały

Aktualnie wyświetlane 1 - 5 z 20
  • Pozycja
    Social foundations of functioning and development of local communities
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Tuziak, Arkadiusz
    The purpose of the article is an attempt to answer the question about the role of endogenous social resources in the functioning and development of local communities. The initial thesis of the analyses undertaken in the article is included in the statement that such resources as subjectivity, participation and civic activity constitute the social foundation and functional requirement for the duration and development of local communities. In the scientific recognition of the subject matter, a method of analysing the literature was used. The scope of the study includes characteristics and analyses of the subjectivity of local communities, participation at the local level and civic activity. The first part of the study shows the subjectivity of local communities as a function of decentralisation and development of local government. Attention was focused on a set of phenomena, processes and factors of the sociological and political character – the integrated co-existence of which is an expression of subjectivity – by providing a real impact of the residents on the functioning and development of the local community. In the second part of the study, social participation was analysed as a manifestation of decentralisation of public administration and an important element of local development programming. A multi-level system of cooperation between citizens and local authorities was presented, as well as rules determining the effectiveness of involvement and participation in the conditions of local government. It stressed the importance of the local government as an institutional environment formation of the active participatory attitude towards undertaking the activities within local communities for the implementation of their needs and self-development. The following part of the article focused on social civic activity as common and conscious articulation, implementation and defence of the interests, needs and aspirations of the local community. Types, scope and manifestations of civic activity were presented, emphasising the pro-development and functional benefits of civic involvement. The analyses and descriptions provided in the article lead to the conclusion that the functioning and development of local communities are a bottom-up, integrated process of economic, political, social and cultural character. Their orientation and proper conduct are positively influenced by endogenous and social potential in the form of subjectivity, participation and civic activity. A synthetic approach to the issue under scrutiny is the author’s model of social triple helix depicting interdependencies and interpenetrations of the three spheres of influence – subjectivity, participation and civic activity within the functioning and the development of local community.
  • Pozycja
    The relation between income from active foreign tourism and the number of foreign visitors: a case study of the four Visegrad Countries
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Matušíková, Daniela; Šambronská, Kristína; Żegleń, Patrycja
    The importance of tourism primarily lies in it as an important source of revenue for the national budget. It contributes to the creation of gross domestic product, enables the creation of new jobs, and supports regional economic development. The tourism sector plays multiple roles because it significantly influences a number of other economic sectors, such as: transport, trade, and culture. Therefore, the tourism economy is perceived as a “flywheel” for local and regional economies. The present study is an analysis of foreign visitors and revenues from tourism within the Visegrad Four countries in the 2009–2015 period. The aim of the study is to describe the position of tourism in the Visegrad countries. Specifically, it focuses on the relationship between income and traffic within the Visegrad Four countries. The data obtained from official sites of the statistical authorities and the OECD were evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. There was a presumption of the existence of a dependence between the income from tourism and the number of visitors in individual countries of the Visegrad Four. On the basis of testing, the main hypothesis cannot be verified or falsified. The statistically significant relationship between the income from tourism and the number of foreign visitors was not confirmed in one of the Visegrad Four countries, namely in the Republic of Hungary. Therefore, it is significant to manage the tourism sector in a suitable way. Tourism management and tourism policy should be perceived as priority actions and initiatives by decision-makers and authorities. Suitable directions for tourism policies and strategies should be indicated and implemented by those who are responsible for tourism development in each country. Moreover, the countries of the Visegrad Four should continue to cooperate, to exchange information on legislative changes in the field of tourism in individual countries, but mainly in promoting the Visegrad Four as a unified whole.
  • Pozycja
    Fostering digital business transformation and digital skill development for economic growth and social inclusion in Poland: a preliminary study
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Olszewska, Karolina
    The digital transformation of an enterprise is an extremely complex issue, which involves modification of the traditional model and business processes through the use of ICT solutions. The transfer of operational activities from the analog to the digital sphere enables new production and distribution methods, better interactions with the customer and the production of digital goods and services. Therefore, digital transformation, as a key issue for enterprises, should play a central role in their development strategy. In the world of artificial intelligence, based on self-learning algorithms and global data flows, appropriate workforce skills are necessary for the effective implementation of a digital strategy. The skill gap, resulting from a lack of proper vision, knowledge, skills and experience, is the main reason for the lack of success in the process of the digital transformation of SMEs. It is also significant with respect to ensuring faster economic growth and the process of social inclusion. The purpose of the study is to outline the importance of the issue of reducing the digital gap, which is one of the important competence gaps for conducting effective digital business transformation at the threshold of the third decade of the 21st century, and to present solutions of systemic support for the development of digital skills in Polish enterprises. The findings of the analysis are as follows: in order to reduce the gap in digital skills, it is necessary to strengthen extensive cooperation within the triple helix, to include public-private partnerships based on coordinated actions undertaken jointly by enterprises, science, and public administration. Science and technology parks (STPs) should play a special role in this respect. However, for this assistance to be effective, it is necessary to prepare the managerial staff for the construction and, above all, implementation of an appropriate support strategy related to STPs for the digital transformation of their tenants.
  • Pozycja
    The knowledge-based economy: an integrated macroeconomic and management approach to the analysis of major forces affecting the evolution of modern economies
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Valente, Riccardo
    The present article represents the first part of wider research focusing on the development of an authorial interpretation of the phenomena characterising modern economies on the basis of a critical analysis of macroeconomic and management literature. It points out, first of all, the existence of two opposing approaches to the interpretation of phenomena characterising the knowledge-based economy. The first one describes these as a completely new phenomenon requiring the development of theoretical instruments significantly different from those already available. The second one, instead, underlines that the conditions characterising modern economies can be treated rather as an economic system development phase, which, based on income inequalities, economic growth and capital accumulation evolution, resembles a return to trends already observed in the past. The paper presents the author’s proposal of integrating both approaches and knowledge-based economy interpretations as an economic development phase characterised – based on the observed trends and a set of theoretical arguments derived from Keynesian theory and justifying the existence of an acceleration mechanism – by the lower profitability of physical capital accumulation. The conclusions indicate how the existence of such a mechanism and the underlining of such a feature of modern economies suffices, according to the author, to explain both the emergence of different phases of development as well as specific economic phenomena considered typical for the knowledge-based economy in the literature. Forthcoming articles will supplement the present one, focusing on their analysis, leading to the development of a unified interpretation scheme able to explain the main mechanisms and major forces affecting economic system functioning both at a given development phase and in the longer-term perspective.
  • Pozycja
    Education versus standard of living in the considerations of classical and modern neoliberal approaches
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Danowska-Prokop, Barbara
    The paper presents the attitudes of the English classics, i.e. Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill, as well as the neoliberal Milton Friedman, to education as a tool supporting the process of division of labour, and thus having a positive impact on the nation’s wealth (national income) and standard of living, not only of individuals but of whole society as well. The aim of the study is to discuss the representatives of the classic economic thought and Milton Friedman’s idea of education as a tool for improving living conditions. The method of describing and reviewing the literature of the subject was used in the paper. In the reality of the free market economy, knowledge and skills as well as the activity, creativity and entrepreneurship of an individual determine individual success, and thus translate into a standard of living. However, with the spread of the capitalist system of production and the deepening of the process of division of labour (specialisation), a universal and public education system, financed by public and private funds hand in hand, plays an increasingly important role in improving the standard of living of the individual and of the general public. Today, the efficiency of the education system (easier access to an appropriate level of education) determines the wealth of society and the position of the state in the global economy.