Tematy i Konteksty 5(10) 2015
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- PozycjaOd szamańskiego transu do śmierci. Rozważania na marginesie intymnych zapisków, listów i wierszy Marilyn Monroe(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Grzyb, KatarzynaThe paper puts forward a thesis that Marilyn Monroe, regarded as a culture icon of the 20th century, has a lot in common with a shaman, because she experiences alternative states of consciousness under the influence of psychoanalytical sessions. There is an association between what is happening in the mind of a shaman who is in a trance and the soul of an actress – regarded as the idol of collective imagination – who is regularly psychoanalyzed. In her poems, letters and intimate notes, whose style is very psycho-biographic, Marilyn Monroe gives an account of her auto-analysis, talks about a growing feeling of being different from others and writes down the moments of shamanic elation. By writing she expresses all things which fail to be expressed in other way, and her own notes are the post-notes of the trance states of the shaman. Nevertheless, she does not realize the fact that psychoanalysis is having a destructive effect on her life, and that it pushes her towards death, and finally kills her.
- PozycjaConrad’s Lord Jim and Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment: Contrastive Axiologies(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Busza, AndrzejKiedy pół wieku temu autor tego artykułu rozpoczynał studia nad twórczością Josepha Conrada, w literaturoznawstwie wciąż dominowały tezy Nowej Krytyki, która twierdziła, że właściwe badanie odnosi się tylko do samego tekstu, pomijając w zasadzie kontekst historyczny, osobę pisarza, a także horyzont oczekiwań czytelników. Autor jednak opowiadał się za mniej „czystym”, a bardziej kontekstualnym podejściem, szczególnie w przypadku pisarzy tak związanych z rzeczywistością historyczną, jak Conrad i – może nawet bardziej – Dostojewski. Znajdując uzasadnienie dla swojego podejścia w „logice pytań i odpowiedzi” angielskiego filozofa R. G. Collingwooda, autor twierdzi, że "Zbrodnia i kara" Dostojewskiego i "Lord Jim" Conrada przedstawiają różne odpowiedzi na dziewiętnastowieczny kryzys wartości, szczególnie w sferze etyki. Conradowskie postrzeganie ludzkiej natury jest zasadniczo ironiczne, a jego wizja potrzeb człowieka jest hierarchiczna. Ludzką powinnością moralną i miarą naszego człowieczeństwa jest dyscyplinowanie i sublimacja niższych instynktów i namiętności. Dostojewski natomiast podkreśla niebezpieczeństwa spaczonego racjonalizmu i umiejscawia dobroć w naturze i ludzkim sercu. Jest to jednak wizja paradoksalna, ponieważ znajduje on tam również okrucieństwo, chciwość, egoizm i ślepe namiętności. Człowiek Dostojewskiego jest więc – jak jego świat – rozdarty przez sprzeczności nie do pogodzenia, które mogą być tylko transcendowane.
- PozycjaSpis treści(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015)
- PozycjaReytan. Lekcja ciemności, która wraca echem żywym(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Ostasz, GustawThe plot of Rymkiewicz’s "Reytan. Upadek Polski" (Warsaw 2012) about the close of the 18th century in Poland is full of digressions on our times. This tale-essay written by a learned philologist and poet is about history which is being revived here and now. Tadeusz Reytan’s mosaic biography is presented by a detective narration which is not free from doubts deliberately raised by the author, who revives various documents and iconographic materials, above all Matejko’s painting-allegory "Upadek Polski". Their significances have an effect on our history; they are the source of our anxieties which we fail to dispose of. The author-polymath has acquired in the internal world of this plot the status of the major element. He is prone to putting forward hypotheses and spins a fragmentary, unformed and open tale. He reveals his own thinking about the past and its echoes in the present. Our today and the 18th century yesterday create a marriage that is impossible to separate. They worry us and evoke the shape of tomorrow. ‘From St. Petersburg to Smolensk an icy wind is still blowing’.
- Pozycja„Ostatni zgasi światło”. Polska proza po 2000 roku wobec problemu migracji unijnej(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Nęcka, AgnieszkaThe sketch is an attempt to focus on the emigration/migration issue in Polish prose written after 2000 and to answer the question of whether we are only dealing with reports written by blue-collar workers as well as descriptions of the day-to-day struggle with reality, or whether we are dealing with more or less sharp playing with emigration patterns. The quoted examples prove that we are dealing with two variants concerning description of experiences during ‘EU migration’. On the one hand, we may speak about a positive pattern where emigration is treated as an adventure which is perceived as breaking free from existing obligations and imposed rigors. On the other hand, one may find a number of negative patterns, according to which emigration is a necessary evil. Thus, the writers reflect on the dramatic everyday life of an emigrant, eclipsing broadly defined problems with identity. They present complexes which make Poles living abroad give in to fate; they base the image of EU (e)migration on clichés and stereotypes. Additionally, one can observe a ‘gender’ division.
- PozycjaPrawie dla wszystkich, ale i prawie nikt skorzysta(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Sioma, RadosławThe paper presents the first monograph of the famous interwar weekly ‘Wiadomości Literackie’, whose first editor-in-chief was Mieczysław Grydzewski. As suggested by the subtitle, Małgorzata Szpakowska’s book "Wiadomości Literackie" has – almost for everyone – an ambition to be popular with the general public. An overriding principle of the book’s composition is that thematic and separate chapters have been devoted to, for example, reportages in ‘Wiadomości’, literary criticism, visual arts (and others), as well as the editor-in-chief, prewar anti-Semitism and the magazine’s recipients. Undoubtedly, Szpakowska’s monograph goes beyond being a thematic research paper. The authoress managed to present the historical development of the literary magazine and situate it against the background of political and social changes, from the first years after regaining of independence up to the last months before the outbreak of the Second World War. The book is an insightful study of a phenomenon important to Polish culture.
- PozycjaProfesor Florian Śmieja doktorem honoris causa Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Pasterska, JolantaThe article presents report from the ceremony of awarding professor Florian Śmieja the highest academic dignity – the title of doctor honoris causa of the University of Wrocław for his contribution to the development of Polish science and literature and the Spanish studies.
- PozycjaPolska powieść polityczna u progu XXI wieku. O prozie Bronisława Wildsteina(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Kania, KamilaThe demand that the public sphere, including culture, should be depoliticized after the transformations which took place in 1989 has proved to be baseless. Polish writers were challenged with the task of describing the events from Polish history and the political, social, cultural and economic changes that were taking place. Literature made an attempt to review the previous system and this issue seemed to be interesting for writers with both conservative and leftist views. One of the authors who delve into this kind of political novel is Bronisław Wildstein, whose artistic work has been imbued with political disputes in which he speaks out forcefully. It is not a cliché to call the novels of this writer and columnist fictionalized political manifestos. Wildstein unwaveringly raises the issues of history and politics as the things which determine our lives. Simultaneously, he refers to the tradition of prose analyzing the responsibility for public events. The writer tries to critically review the Polish People’s Republic (PRL) and its myths (including the Solidarity myth). Moreover, among the subjects frequently discussed one may find media policy and the world of politics from the inside.
- PozycjaFantastyka i parafrazy. O dyskursie pamięci w twórczości pisarzy młodego pokolenia – Łukasz Orbitowski Widma (2012) i Paweł Demirski Niech żyje wojna! (2011)(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Rutka, AnnaThe present article discusses works by Łukasz Orbitowski and Paweł Demirski, two authors representing the young generation of Polish writers whose texts stand in the opposition to a worn-out and highly ritualised trend of national-symbolic interpretations of memory. The debunking literary strategy of both authors relies heavily on the aesthetics of subversion. Choosing for 'Spectres' the genre of historical fantasy, Łukasz Orbitowski provides himself with a vast space of artistic freedom, using it for free reinterpretations and continuations of the existing narratives of memory. The theatre of Paweł Demirski and Monika Strzępka, in turn, is a theatre of linguistic performance which clashes sequences of language that transmit historical imagination and national self-awareness of Poles. In Demirski’s play theatre becomes a medium of protest against fossilised forms of memory, where graphically staged painful trauma is deprived of the aura of sacrum. Triviality and vulgarism of language demolish both the elevated phrases of the national culture of memory and the naïve pop-cultural representations of war and the Warsaw Uprising.
- PozycjaProblem „polskości” w londyńskich pismach studenckich („Życie Akademickie” – „Kontynenty”)(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Moczkodan, RafałThe first part of the text is an analysis of the category of ‘Polishness’ (its senses, understanding and functioning) with respect to emigrational youth gathered around magazines published in the United Kingdom by Polish students, and then by the literary group The Continents (Kontynenty). We show that among the basic problems connected with The Continents Group one may mention the search for the ways in which national identity could be preserved and then passed on to future generations. The definition of what refugees were supposed to do was different if we compare young emigrants and the older generation (which was shaped and gained maturity before the Second World War). The young generation was open to dialogue, but wanted to redefine the common ideas and search for new paths and means which would be useful in preserving cultural identity. Significantly, both generations were in favour of preserving Polish language and culture. As discussed in the second part of the sketch, this was related to the category of patriotism, as well as back-to-front ‘Polish national vices’. In these areas one may observe disparities between the generations; disparities which come down to the opposition: rational assessment vs. mythologization. The former allows young emigrants, who have no complexes or sense of guilt, to take advantage of the opportunities created by the countries in which they settle, and still not lose their bonds with the nation.
- PozycjaManierysta w nowoczesności(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Rabizo-Birek, MagdalenaIn the review main interpretation theses of Andrzej Niewiadomski’s monograph devoted to the writing of the outstanding emigration author from ‘the generation 1910’ Zygmunt Haupt have been presented. These are: the aesthetics of mannerism, critical diagnosis of modernity crowned with an attempt to build a constructive ethical and literary project and a thorough analysis of the key motives of his prose (including aviarium, art of mannerism, theatrum mundi, road-home, a landowner’s manor house, horses, word ‘strange’, ‘quaternary’ structures).The author presents writer’s workshop secrets and places him among the greatest representatives of Polish as well as European modernism.
- PozycjaKrytyka „Wiadomości”(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Lutomierski, MarcinRafał Moczkodan’s monograph entitled ‘Omawiacze, laurkodawcy’, publicyści i krytycy. Krytyka literacka na łamach ‘Wiadomości’ w latach 1946–1956 is the first attempt to tackle the problem suggested by the title. The reviewed work is well documented: all opinions and theses which are presented find their justification in the rich bibliography (including sources which are not only literary criticism texts), which the author is well versed on. Furthermore, the monograph has been written in a precise and interesting way, making the book an incentive to continue research on criticism and literary journalism in the area of ‘Wiadomości’.
- PozycjaAnons kolejnego numeru „Tematów i Kontekstów” – Staropolskie i oświeceniowe piśmiennictwo religijne. Swojskość i uniwersalizm(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Trościński, GrzegorzIn 2014 was published a volume of „Themes and Contexts” dedicated Old-Polish and 18th Century Religious Literature. In the sixth issue of our journal we would like to continue that topic. We are interested in exploring, analyzing and describing the phenomena of homeliness and universality in a former religious literature.
- PozycjaDie DDR in einer Autobiographie. Zu Werner Heiduczeks Die Schatten meiner Toten(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Jaśkiewicz, GrzegorzThe paper Die DDR in einer Autobiographie. Zu Werner Heiduczeks ‘Die Schatten meiner Toten’ [GDR in an autobiography. The text of the Werner Heiduczek’s ‘Shadows of my dead’] is the result of research conducted by the author over the image of the GDR in the literature of personal documents (autobiography) writers from East Germany after reunification in 1990. The present text is an analysis of the autobiography of a German writer Werner Heiduczek ‘Die Schatten meiner Toten’, published in Leipzig in 2005. The analysis is preceded by a brief portrait of the writer and the contribution of autobiography as a literary genre and its role in relation to the text of Heiduczek. The analysis focuses on the complex relationship of the writer to the GDR, his assessment of the most important events in the GDR: uprising of 17th June 1953 and turn of 1989, keeping the events around W. Biermann in 1976 and its own place in society and politics as well as personal life.
- PozycjaPost-fenomenologiczna narracja w powieści Bieguni Olgi Tokarczuk(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Trygar, BarbaraIn the paper we make an attempt to read out the post-phenomenology of Henri Maldiney in the novel 'Bieguni'. Maldiney’s post-phenomenology is not treated as a doctrine, but an action and an activity made against the elements of psychoanalysis and postmodernism. The world depicted in 'Bieguni' is one in which we can observe continuous movement and compulsion. The border between the entity and the world they are living in has been erased. It is the world in which a man has to choose his identity. “Being on one’s way” opens a person to new experiences and inspires him/her to some creative actions. Neither the nomadic thinking nor the format of writing are growing; not in some determined theoretical place, and not either in some well-defined writing style. The identity of the individual seems to be set, and formed only by his self-understanding. Tokarczuk’s 'Bieguni' is becoming part of an important discourse on the literature of the 21st century. It is not necessary to consider narrations only in the aesthetic context, which is cleaning the world up, but as the act of mind turning life into art. Every man is a wanderer travelling not only in the physical but also cultural dimension, and such journeys have both literal and metaphorical meanings. A walk consisting of seeking oneself as an artist, spiritual and intellectual travel, and exploring the world of symbols, are the professional domain of authors, and at the same time an excerpt of their mythology.
- PozycjaKiemlicze pomogli. O Sienkiewiczowskich odniesieniach w prozie Karola Olgierda Borchardta(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Rusin, JoannaBorn at the beginning of the 20th century, the popular Polish writer and captain of the Polish Merchant Marine, Karol Olgierd Borchardt, belonged to a generation brought up on the literary work of Henryk Sienkiewicz. "Potop" was Borchardt’s favourite novel, and Sienkiewicz his most acknowledged writer. Recalling his sailing at sea, especially in the novels "Znaczy kapitan" (1961) and "Szaman morski" (1985), Borchardt eagerly and frequently made references to characters and events from "Trylogia". Even in his unfinished book of childhood memories, "Pod czerwoną różą" (1991), published posthumously, while telling a family anecdote, Borchardt made references to Kiemlicze, known from "Potop". One may say that Borchardt remained faithful to Sienkiewicz for the rest of his life, invariably con amore referring to and citing the works of Sienkiewicz.
- PozycjaWiwisekcja duszy niemieckiej w powieści Trzecie królestwo Andrzeja Kuśniewicza(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Supady, GrzegorzAndrzej Kuśniewicz (1904-1993) was an acknowledged writer whose works used to be popular and widely read, but after 1989 a number of them fell into oblivion. Both aesthetic and cognitive values have been retained – by and large – thanks to the novels which referred to the Habsburg myth in European literature, which was defined by the eminent Italian German specialist Claudio Magris. However, the Polish writer explored other ranges of his interests as well, for example the ones concerning his personal experience acquired after his stay in France ('Witraż' 1980). The writer dealt with subjects connected with events which took place in West Germany in the 1960s. They were reflected in his previous novel 'Trzecie królestwo', published in 1975. In spite of the writer’s complicated fate in the Polish People’s Republic, the work presents a huge breakthrough which happened a quarter of a century after the end of the Second World War in the politics of the FRG and in West German society in a very attractive literary form. At that time our western neighbors had to fundamentally redefine the conservative perception of their own history. In fact, to a large extent the situation had been initiated by the generation of people born in 1968 that took up the reins and started to rule the country. The author of the article attempts to present the struggle – embedded by Kuśniewicz – of the generation of perpetrators who faced difficult questions asked by their children and sometimes even grandchildren. To conclude, although the description provided by the Polish prose writer is not free from some simplifications characterized by extreme subjectivity, we must admit that the book is a valuable piece of evidence depicting a significant period in the history of Central Europe.
- PozycjaMoje najdroższe kobiety (o kobietach w życiu Adolfa Dygasińskiego na podstawie epistolografii)(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Niekra, MagdalenaDygasiński’s image created on the basis of his writing seems to be quite schematic. The paper is an attempt to look at the writer from a different perspective. We focus on the relationships between the writer and women who were most important in his life, namely his mother, sisters, lover, wife and daughter. Dygasiński’s private epistolography, which serves as research material, allows us to present both the portraits of the above-mentioned women and the writer’s opinions on women’s issues. It turns out that experiences connected with women had a considerable influence on Dygasiński’s life and it is possible that they influenced on the way the writer created the heroines in his novels. However, this problem needs further examination.
- PozycjaKonferencja naukowa „I wojna światowa w literaturze i innych tekstach kultury. Reinterpretacje i dopełnienia”(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Jamrozek-Sowa, AnnaThe article includes conference report World War I in literature and other texts of culture. Reinterpretations and supplements, organized by the Institute of Polish Philology at the University of Rzeszów, which was held on 17-18 November 2014.
- PozycjaO wyglądzie stołów pańskich i chudopacholskich w powieściach saskich J. I. Kraszewskiego słów kilka(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2015) Modlińska, AleksandraJózef Ignacy Kraszewski is most notably known as a history enthusiast; however, he was also a knowledgeable observer of 18th century customs and the everyday life of certain social groups. One has grounds to say that the period in which he lived – namely the Saxons era, in which people led colorful social lives – was conducive to his interest. Also, the writer’s personal experiences are not without significance, especially his childhood and stay in Romanów, where Kraszewski familiarized himself with the rules of etiquette by which the gentry abode. Yet another interest that contributed to the accurate description of 18th century customs was the fact that the writer was a bibliophile. Looking through the Dresden archives, Kraszewski got a clear picture of the life of the society which allowed him to aptly depict the flavor of those times in his artistic work. Among a number of social niceties, Kraszewski paid special attention to the customs connected with the Old Polish dining table, namely its decorative qualities created by an abundance of crystal, trinkets, flowers, table linen, porcelain figurines and bright tablecloth. Finally, tableware seems to be part and parcel of such depictions.
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