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- PozycjaCustoms handling and sustainable development of enterprises(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2022) Świerczyńska, JowitaThe aim of the paper is to present the essence of customs handling in the context of sustainable development of enterprises and to discuss its selected instruments of a pro-ecological nature, i.e., e-customs services. Thus, with a view to achieving this objective, the research hypothesis has been formulated as follows: the so-called pro-ecological solutions for handling customs administrative procedures, being familiar with them and their practical application, not only influence the facilitation of export and import transactions, but can also stimulate sustainable development management of enterprises. The article includes a theoretical part, as well as a practical one, in which examples of e-customs services offered in customs handling and benefits resulting from their use are indicated. The findings of the considerations of the paper are presented in the conclusion. The research was based on descriptive and comparative analysis, preceded by a review of sources from the subject literature. In the author’s opinion, transferring selected elements of customs handling from traditional processing to the model which takes advantage of modern information and communication technologies (ICT) helps companies to implement the idea of sustainable development. Information technologies play a key role in reducing the negative impact on the environment, and their development has created numerous new opportunities for customs handling, which are used by customs authorities with increasing success. It is important that over the coming years, the development of e-services for customs handling is continued, thus not only contributing to an improvement of the quality of business services but also the implementation of other aspects that are also crucial from the point of view of sustainable development of enterprises.
- PozycjaCorporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable development during the Covid-19 pandemic(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2022) Kubiczek, Jakub; Hadasik, BartłomiejThe coronavirus pandemic affected all areas of social life and changed the conditions in which most industries operate. The current forms of profitable business activities were suspended in many sectors of the market, which forced entrepreneurs to adapt to the new market conditions. During the Covid-19 pandemic, particular attention should be paid to the activities of enterprises in two so far closely related areas: corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable development (SD). Enterprises typically pursued sustainable development goals (SDGs) and supported them as part of their CSR. The paper is exploratory in nature and it aims to determine the degree of CSR commitment and the implementation of the SDGs during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. The results show that the sudden outbreak of the pandemic and the equally dynamic response of governments left some enterprises in uncertainty as going concerns. However, financially sound companies have become committed to helping the population groups most affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. Moreover, the pandemic situation has significantly distanced companies from achieving the intended long-term Global Goals, and the spread of the Covid-19 disease has a significant (mostly negative) impact on the sustainable development of the world. Furthermore, it is impossible to determine the long-term impact of a pandemic on CSR activities and on the implementation of the SDGs.
- PozycjaThe role of the state during the Covid-19 pandemic in Poland and the Czech Republic. A comparative analysis(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2022) Rogowska, BeataThe activity of the state during the crisis, as a rule, shows vulnerable areas, ones that are weaker or for a long time unreformed, representing the ‘weaknesses’ of a given economy. The aim of this paper is to compare areas requiring particular state aid in Poland and the Czech Republic in the context of the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, taking into account their historical development. The choice of the countries is the deliberate methodological procedure due to the fact that both represent one of the key regions in Europe. The indicated countries are EU members, which determines the approach of the Czech Republic and Poland in the field of economic policy, including trade, social policy, food security, energy, and health protection (taking into account the competences of the member states in relation to the EU in this area). It was pointed out that both countries did not join the euro area. Tax concepts in the public finance of both countries were taken into account. Moreover, these countries are faced with similar ecological challenges such as the Green Deal which influences the necessary economic changes. Comparative analysis was used as a research method, taking into account not only the differences and similarities between the countries analysed. Both countries face civilization and development challenges, for example, digital changes, which determine the effectiveness of other public policies.
- PozycjaHousing security as an indicator of the living environment(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2022) Kolesnikova, IrinaHousing is one of the core values that provide citizens with a sense of economic stability and security, as well as stimulate them to work productively. Housing is an important element of the quality of the living environment in Belarus. There is a problem in the republic of providing the population with comfortable and affordable housing. The identified regional differences in housing security, both between countries and between regions within the country, are due to the fact that different territories have a number of socio-economic, natural-geographical and ecological characteristics, which include: – within the country, this is the difference in the economic and geographical position of agricultural regions in terms of soil fertility for the cultivation of certain agricultural crops; radioactive contamination of certain territories of Belarus, the level of their development; – the difference between the countries is explained by different levels of social and economic development of territories, living standards of the population, differences in the development of the banking and financial and credit spheres, the industry of the regions, information transparency of the housing sector, and a number of other factors. This was confirmed using the index analysis of housing security of the population of the regions of Belarus and the cluster analysis of the aggregate of the CIS countries.
- PozycjaE-commerce development opportunities and limitations from the Generation Z perspective of Poland and Albania(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2022) Kiełbasa, Barbara; Tartaraj, AzetaThe aim of the study was to identify challenges for the development of the e-commerce industry in Poland and Albania and to explore their directions and limitations in the opinion of young people. The study was formed by a literature review for qualitative research purposes and took an analysis approach through a survey method among students from the economic and management faculties. Respondents aged 18–30 participated in the survey from the reputedly more tech-savvy ʻGeneration Zʼ demographic group. The data obtained shows that the e-commerce industry, both in Poland and Albania, is undergoing significant changes and that the pandemic has accelerated these. Many established companies were those that trade on the Internet or offer e-services. Respondents indicated many benefits of running a business on the web; notably, the convenience of selling and lower operating costs. This form of running a business is attractive to younger people. However, they acknowledge some limitations. The most important barrier is high competition in the market and a lack of innovative ideas that would otherwise allow them to break into the market. Significantly, Albania has seen the development of its technological infrastructure, as well as the building of consumer confidence in this type of transaction. Taking into account the forecasts for e-commerce development for Poland and Albania, there is a need for up-to-date information on ways of setting up and running e-businesses. Expertise in this field is needed, as are qualified teaching and academic staff with sufficient knowledge of the evolving e-business environment.