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- PozycjaWierzawice, st. 31 – nowy ślad osadnictwa magdaleńskiego w Polsce południowo-wschodniej(Instytut Archeologii UR, 2010) Bobak, Dariusz; Łanczont, Maria; Nowak, Adam; Połtowicz-Bobak, MartaIn the article there are presented the latest results (2009–2010) of the research of the archaeological site No. 31 in Wierzawice. It was possible to identify there the remains of the hunting camp of the population of the Magdalenian culture, referred to the period of the warm Allerod oscillation (14th thousand. BC; one of latest Magdalenian sites in Central Europe!), indicated by the radiocarbon dating. It was discovered over 2600 flint artifacts deposited on a very small area (about 8 m2)(i.e. microtiths, burins, cores. flakes, blades and chips).
- PozycjaOsadnictwo starszej epoki kamienia na północnym przedpolu Bramy Morawskiej(Muzeum Podkarpackie w Krośnie, 2010) Bobak, Dariusz; Połtowicz-Bobak, MartaPlateau Plaskowyz Glubczycki, a constituent part of the Moravian Gate area, is one of the principal and most abundant in archaeological sources regions in Poland. The aim of the research on the Older Stone Age being conducted in the southern stretch of this region is to examine settlement and determine the inter-regional connections linking the Polish and Czech parts of Silesia with Moravia. The earliest settlements were Middle Palaeolithic and they are represented by usually not very abundant sites, only some of which have been excavated. The chief sites include Raciborz-Studzienna, Pietraszyn, Owsiszczach, Dzierzyslaw, and Kornice. The artefacts which occur here may be associated with assemblages ofbifacial tools, and assemblages comprising a majority of unilateral tools. It is very hard to establish connections between these places and sites to the south of the Moravian Gate. However, certain differences may be observed for sites from the younger phase of the Middle Palaeolithic. While the predominant type in the southern part of the Opole area of Silesia are bifacial tool sites, most of the sites south of the Moravian Gate have assemblages which follow flake (Taubachien and Mousterien) traditions. Analogies of the Silesian settlements may be expected in the Lesser Poland region, at sites associated with a Micoquien complex. There are no imported raw materials in the Middle Palaeolithic sites. The situation for the younger periods is quite different. There is ample evidence for Szeleta Culture settlement, represented chiefly by the well-stocked sites at Lubotyn, which has been excavated, and at Dzieriyslaw. Other Szeletian sites have been identified at Pilszcz and Rozumice on the basis of surface finds. One could certainly consider this phenomenon a northern Szeletian centre, with assemblages and a settlement model clearly reminiscent of Moravian counterparts. The stone raw materials occurring here confirm a close link with the original area of Szeletian settlement. The few sites with sparse assemblages in the Czech part of Silesia mark out the route the migrations took and their final destination on the Plaskowyz Glubczycki plateau. The sites at Lubotyll and Dzierzyslaw, which belong to the large base-camp type, indicate that it was a fairly intensive and multi-season settlement that occurred in these territories. Not much research has been done on the Gravettian Culture, the best preserved specimen of which is the W6jcice site. However, the immediate environs of both sides of the Moravian Gate seem to have been the peripheries of Gravettian settlement, and the area was only oflimited interest for these people, probably mostly for the acquisition of raw materials. The occurrence of Magdalenian settlement, although evidenced only by sporadic, isolated sites, may be indicative of close relations joining the areas on either side of the Moravian Gate. This is illustrated by the high degree of similarity in the assemblages at the Dzierzyslaw and Hranice sites. Perhaps the land vicinal to the Moravian Gate constituted an integral territory accommodating one community. Currently we have far too few data available to be able to answer this question, nonetheless the issue may be a subject for further research. The prolific base camp at Dzierzyslaw, settled time and again, is evidence that this area was regularly penetrated by Magdalenian people. Attempting to answer the question of the significance of the Moravian Gate for the diffusion of settlement and culture in Central Europe is by no means an easy task The role of this communication route seems to have increased after the Middle Palaeolithic, but its importance varied depending on the period, and above all on the amount of interest the respective human groups showed in extending their area of settlement into neighbouring territories northward or, less often, southward. This in turn depended on a series of factors connected with environmental conditions and culture. Evidently sparse settlement, small sites and poor assemblages were characteristic not only of the Polish, but also the Czech part of Silesia. The observed density of settlement immediately north and south of the Moravian Gate gives no grounds at all for a distinction between these two micro-regions as regards settlement. If this is a true hypothesis, then it would seem reasonable to conclude that the peripheral nature ofPalaeolithic settlement on the Plaskowyz Glubczycki plateau was not due to the Carpathians and Sudetes acting as a barrier to migration through the Moravian Gate, but to some other causes which curtailed interest in both the Polish and the Czech side of Silesia as settlement areas, but which are still unknown.
- PozycjaA new Federmesser culture site in the Głubczyce Plateau on the background of the settlement of the arched backed blade complex in Southern Poland, Moravia and Bohemia(Knižnice České Společnosti Archeologické, 2010) Bobak, Dariusz; Połtowicz-Bobak, Marta
- PozycjaNowy ślad osadnictwa środkowopaleolitycznego na Podkarpaciu(Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2009) Połtowicz-Bobak, Marta; Bobak, Dariusz; Janicki, Rafał
- PozycjaNouvelles données sur le Szélétien en Pologne(Société Préhistorique Française, 2013) Połtowicz-Bobak, Marta; Bobak, Dariusz; Badura, Janusz; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Cywa, KatarzynaThe territory of the Southern Poland marks the northern border of the Szeletian settlement. Within the territory of Poland, the Szeletian settlement is noted in three regions: Silesia, Krakow-Czestochowa Jurassic Highland Chain, and the Carpathians (Kozłowski, 2000). A single leaf point interpreted as Szeletian was also found in the east of Poland (fig. 1). The few Szeletian sites known from the excavations within the Polish territory indicated that the settlement was short-term and not intense. The exception is Dzierżysław site, interpreted as a base camp (J. K. Kozłowski, 2000; Fajer et al., 2005). Thus, Lubotyń 11 site in the SE part of the Głubczyce Plateau that has been being examined by us since 2006 merits more attention as this place is the richest Szeletian site found so far in Poland and also one of the best preserved within the whole area occupied by this culture. It is one of the very few that allow us not only to analyse archaeological materials but its environmental context as well. The camp in Luboty´n is a very typical example of a Palaeolithic site localisation taking advantage of all terrain features: situated along the route linking the south and north, an excellent vantage point – lying on the top of the highest elevation in the area – and rich flint outcrops in the direct vicinity of the site (fig. 2). A loess bed, in which the relics were deposited, protected the site and contributed to preservation of an occupation level of the camp and charcoals. The site occupies the top part of a moraine hill (309.8 m), connected with the Oder glaciation, built of gravel and sand formations intersected by frost wedges. The flint raw materials were obtained from these outcrops. In the loess bed, in some part of the excavated area a black layer very sated with charcoals was found, being the remnants of the occupation level of the camp. At least two hearths were identified in the layer. This layer and the loess covering it constitute the main source of artefacts (Bobak et al., in press; fig. 3 and 4). More than 5,000 flint objects come from the previous excavations. Artefacts (approximately 3,300) constitute an overwhelming majority. Almost all artefacts are made of flint found in the direct vicinity of the site or at the site. There are a few items made of other raw materials – a quartzite core, a quartzite flake and a single radiolarite flake – most probably of the southern origin. The structure of the inventory is typical for a basic site: core frequency (66 items) is less than 3%; the tools constitute a bit more than 6% (184 items); debitage dominates, with a very distinct predominance of flakes over blades. Regular flake cores dominate (42 items together with initial cores) or flake-blade cores (8 items). The proportion of blade cores is relatively high (18 items; fig. 5). The forms without preparation or with very limited preparation dominate. There are few discoidal cores (9 items) and one Levallois core. The group of tools consists of tools typical for Szeletian units (fig. 6). The tools made mainly from flakes, rarely from blades or from non-industrial pieces, include mostly non-characteristic flakes or bits, more rarely retouched flakes (50 and 12 respectively). Among the other types of tools, end-scrapers dominate (18 items). The next group of tools are side-scrapers (15 items), notched tools (10 items) and denticulate tools (7 items), a single splintered pieces, one atypical perforator and a raclette. There are no burins. The special group of tools are leaf points. There are only nine of them in the tool group, together with fragments and unfinished forms. It is difficult to determine points form. Most of them are preserved fragmentally. The points preserved intact have round bases. Bifacial retouch (partial) is a feature characteristic for the group, also on the other tools, mainly side-scrapers, retouched blades and flakes, as well as on end-scrapers. No bone remains were found in the previously surveyed area. However, we possess some paleobotanical data coming from the palynological analysis and results of the analysis of wood macroremains. The data show a very interesting picture. Among the few pollens, there is mainly birch (Betula), much less often pine (Pinus) and one alder pollen (Alnus). Shrubs are represented by a single dwarf birch pollen (Betula nana type), seabuckthorn (Hippophae) and juniper (Juniperus). All charcoals belong to pine (Pinus). We can talk about an environment of forest-tundra type, characteristic of the Hengelo interstadial in Poland (Bobak et al., in press). Radiocarbon dates coming from samples taken from both hearts confirm generally such age (fig. 7). But they cannot be unambiguously interpreted. So far, three dates within the range from 44000 ±3000 BP to 35100 ±800 BP come from the site. Two later dates (38000 ±1800 BP and 35000 ±800 BP) fit adequately into the Szeletian period, the dating 44000 ±3000 BP is too early. It might simply be wrong, which is suggested by a very wide range of standard error (3,000 years). Undoubtedly, the site in Luboty´n should be considered as one of the most important Szeletian sites in Central Europe taking into account archaeological and environmental data. The camp in Luboty´n is not the only site newly discovered in this region. In the vicinity two other sites have been revealed, at the moment known only from the surface surveys. At these sites, strong prerequisites indicating the presence of evidence of the Szeletian settlement were found. These include two sites in Pilszcz – sites 63 and 64 (Bobak and Połtowicz-Bobak, 2009). In each small flint assemblage, one point (or its semiproduct) has been found indicating with high probability its Szeletian origin (fig. 8). The accompanying artefacts are less characteristic, although some materials, in particular from site 63, have some technological and typological features that could be characteristic of assemblages from the beginning of the Upper Palaeolithic. It cannot be excluded that the surface site Dzier·zysław 79, previously interpreted by one of us as Aurignacian (Połtowicz, 2003 and 2006), should be attributed to the Szeletian culture (fig. 8). All the sites mentioned above are clustered in a very small and exceptionally important region, in the southern part of the Głubczyce Plateau. This region constitutes a direct foreground of the Moravian Gate, a lowland between the Carpathians and the Sudeten constituting the Oder Valley. During the Palaeolithic, the Gate was an important point linking the Southern Poland, mainly Silesia, with Moravia. Five Szeletian sites, mentioned above, are concentrated in the area less than 5 sq km. They were all were situated in a very similar geomorphologic environment: on exposed hills ensuring an excellent observation of the surrounding areas. The localisation indicates clearly their preferences in choosing the places to settle up their camps and also suggests that the settlement strategy was well-considered. The presence of this small but very significant concentration of sites appears to mark another important centre of the Szeletian settlement in Central Europe directly linked with the Moravia and confirms the importance of the Moravian Gate as the route linking Moravia and Silesia. Luboty´n site proves that the point was not sporadic and short-term expeditions to the north, but that here we (also?) deal with a more long-term, apparently multiple, process of settlement of these people. The presence of other sites suggests the intensive penetration of these areas.
- PozycjaOsadnictwo starszej i środkowej epoki kamienia na terenach Podkarpacia w świetle badań na trasie autostrady A4 w latach 2005-2011(Muzeum Okręgowe w Rzeszowie, 2011) Bobak, Dariusz; Połtowicz-Bobak, MartaThe areas of south-east Poland, lying within the boundaries of today Podkarpackie voivodeship belong to those Polish areas where the Palaeolithic settlement is still poorly recognized. The research on the Older Stone Age has here, admittedly, a long, but very poor history. Therefore, the researchers noticed a large opportunity for understanding the settlements preceding the agricultural peoples in the areas of Podkarpacie after conducting field studies along the eastern section of A4 motorway construction. However, field work carried out here yielded no breakthroughs. The researchers discovered a few sites where the traces of settlement coming from the earliest period of prehistory were recorded. They registered in general very poor residue remains of the Final Upper Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic groups recorded in a single, specific finds or rare collections. They were usually uncovered beyond their original context, often in decidedly younger fills of features, coming from other prehistoric periods. As examples we ought to mention the Sviderian blade core found in the fill of much younger prehistoric pit (Borek Wielki, site 18), or single tanged point within the cultural layer (Białobrzegi, site 8; Budy Łańcuckie, site 7). The researchers found also other categories of artefacts next to them, which cultural and chronological classification was less clear, though, generally with high probability, we can affiliate them with the Final Upper Palaeolithic Period, which in most cases means their relationship with the Sviderian culture. Such a classification is proposed primarily for flint forms bearing clear traces of the production technique; in the case of the Sviderian blades, it is possible to recognize mainly clear traces of the opposed platform core techniques. They were found for examples at the sites such as Łąka site 1+27 or Terliczka site 3. Another group of sites constitute those ones where flint artefacts were discovered, and considered probably as the Palaeolithic forms, and which are so poorly characteristic that their chronological and cultural affiliation is not possible (e.g. Terliczka, site 3). Similar image is shaped with regards to the finds belonging to the Mesolithic Period: they are represented in majority by single finds or their small collections of distinctive characteristics – mainly microlith forms (Terliczka, site 3; Kozodrza, site 6; Bratkowice, site 45). Some of the artefacts regarded as the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic forms occurred within the same site. On the other hand, the region around Trzebownisko village near Rzeszów should be assessed differently. During the excavations, the researchers have discovered here three large and rich in artefacts sites of the Stone Age, constituting the multicultural complex of sites: Terliczka, site 4; Terliczka, site 5, Łąka site 11–16. These three sites have provided rich inventories of flint lying partly in clusters corresponding to their original deposition. At all these three sites it is possible to isolated flint artefacts belonging to more than one cultural unit among the rich collection of more than 1,000 finds uncovered within each site. What is more, there are numerous forms which affiliation to the Palaeolithic Period is undoubted. The site Terliczka 4 is situated in the valley of the Wisłok River, and it takes the area of a few hectares in total, but the materials of flint occurred on the surface of only 7 ares. Flint inventories belonging to different cultures classified as the Paleolithic and Mesolithic artefacts were re-moved by natural post-depositional processes, and partly due to destruction made by later, prehistoric settlements. These disorders, although they led to a partial mixing of materials, however, they were so small that it was possible to identify the presence of spatial layout of flints, forming two or three concentrations, partially damaged and distorted nowadays in relation to the primary set. Flint inventories are non-homogeneous. There are four chronological-cultural horizons differentiated: – the youngest one, affiliated to the Mesolithic period without any particular cultural belonging. However, on the basis of the presence of characteristic trapezoidal-shaped inserts, it is linked with a younger phase of that period (the Atlantic period, i.e. about 6000 B.P.); – the Sviderian culture, identified primarily not only on the base of the occurrence of classic tanged points, but also characteristic blades; – the Tarnowiański circle / the Tarnów circle, represented by a small collection of flint, which is composed of two unusual curved backed blades and short end scrapers made on flakes as well as burins; – and the most significant discovery – the Gravettian culture, represented by the cores for blades and also other characteristic tools: large backed blades made on blades and samples of smaller dimensions, splintered cores (also called knives of Kostienki type), truncated blades and also common forms such as and scrapers and burins. Another important site and rich in inventory is the site 5 in Terliczka. There were approximately a thousand flint artefacts, out of which around 200 ones should be affiliated with the Palaeolithic Period, very few (several examples) with the Mesolithic Period – probably the Komornica culture and perhaps the Janisławice culture. Flint collection occurred in a limited space. Although the researchers gathered them from the area of 119 ares, but they observed the presence of distinctive assemblages within a smaller space. The most obvious products are those which have distinctive features of the Swiderian technology noticeable primarily in the 43 form of a beautiful collection of typical blade cores with a characteristic way of preparing the material for knapping and knapping itself, and a series of tanged points. The complex of Łąka sites 11–16 also provided a series of significant flint materials, out of which it was possible to identified quantitatively dominant Swiderian implements (tanged points) and Magdalenian ones (at least one core and the distinctive burin associated with Lacan burins). What is more, it is worth mentioning that the Palaeolithic sites have not been discovered along the section of the motorway, which runs through the loess areas. Several-meter-deep trenches excavated through the hills have revealed a significant part of the loess profiles, but none of them contained artefacts. Taking into account, that the Palaeolithic settlements were very rare, as well as they were under the influence of numerous destructing processes, and finally it is extremely difficult to find them in the field, the discussed issue should not be surprising. On the other hand, it leaves some disappointment because a great chance of cutting loess has not brought the desired result. However, this does not negate the possibility of the presence of settlement traces in these areas. Coming into conclusion, it is worth indicating that although the conducted research along the route of the A4 motorway has not yielded many spectacular discoveries, but it has led to a number of important findings. With regards to the dominant character of the settlements of the Final Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Periods, it was identified as poor and short, but on the other hand the results of the discovery of new sites will constitute an important point on the map of Palaeolithic settlement of south-eastern Poland. These findings not only indicate the existence of camps in various episodes of settlement but also provide additional data for the study of the Palaeolithic hunters’ routes as well as the relationship among the various areas of our country and our part of Europe.
- PozycjaŚlady osadnictwa z epoki kamienia w Jegłowej, gm. Przeworno(1996) Bobak, Dariusz
- PozycjaBadania mezolitycznego stanowiska Jegłowa 2, gm. Przeworno(1997) Bobak, Dariusz
- PozycjaNew chronological data for Weichselian sites from Poland and their implications for Palaeolithic(Elsevier, 2013) Bobak, Dariusz; Płonka, Tomasz; Połtowicz-Bobak, Marta; Wiśniewski, AndrzejThe goal of this paper is to present the new records on chronology and settlement dynamics in the area situated north of the Carpathians and Sudeten between MIS-3 and GI-1. The focus is on records representing Middle Palaeolithic and so-called transitional industries (Early Upper Palaeolithic), as well late Upper Palaeolithic. Studies are based on longer series of numerical data obtained during recent field work and an examination of old museum collections. These attempts differ from the previous approaches in which the main attention was put on the comparison of stratigraphical and archaeological data, rarely relating to the chronometric records. In the beginning of MIS-3, no settlement hiatus took place in this area. It appears that the classic late Middle Palaeolithic industries had no direct influence on the appearance of the transitional industries and that in the same period different industries could co-exist. There are no convincing arguments indicating a connection between the youngest transitional units and the Upper Palaeolithic industries. Studies on settlement dynamics during the last glaciation maximum (ca. 19,000–17,000 BP) have led to the acceptance of the previous concept emphasizing its unstable character. The sites with more numerous artefacts connected with the Magdalenian tradition and the Epigravettian come from the end of that period. The beginning of Magdalenian settlement on Polish territory took place at the turn of GS-2c and GS-2b, ca. 18,500–17,500 BP. More numerous Magdalenian camps started to appear in GS-2a, ca. 16,500–14,500 BP. The late dates of Magdalenian camps (GI-1c-1a) may be caused by the contamination of the samples, but it cannot be also excluded that the Magdalenian style of life survived in some southern regions of Poland until the Allerød.
- PozycjaNew information from Maszycka Cave and the Late Glacial recolonisation of Central Europe(Elsevier, 2012) Kozłowski, Stefan Karol; Połtowicz-Bobak, Marta; Bobak, Dariusz; Terberger, ThomasMaszycka cave is one of the most important Magdalenian sites in Central Europe. The assemblage is characterized by a considerable number of organic tools including points, navettes and a decorated perforated antler. The cave was related to the middle Magdalenian of western Europe and identified as one of the earliest Magdalenian sites of Central Europe. A series of four AMS-dates now assigns the site more precisely to the period 16,350 to 16,100 calBC (c. 15.000 BP). No other reliably dated Magdalenian sites of this early period of recolonisation of southern Central Europe are known and its clearest parallels to the west are the Grotte Grappin at Arlay in western France and perhaps the open air site Munzingen in southwestern Germany. After the first short episode of recolonisation, a more permanent Magdalenian expansion into Central Europe started hundreds of years later with sites such as Kesslerloch in northern Switzerland.
- PozycjaProblem mezolitu w Sudetach(Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, 1999) Bronowicki, Jarosław; Bobak, DariuszThe problem of the Sudety Mountains as a territory ofMesolithic settlement has arisen only during last few years. The Sudety issue has not been dealt with in any particular way as far as the Czech part of the mountains is concerned due to the fact that the country is situated entirely in the upland and mountainous area of Central Europe. Until recently sites in the Polish part have not been known at alL After they were discovered it proved to be necessary to treat the Mesolithic period in the Sudety distinctively from the Lowland studies, and therefore the Sudety macroregion of Mesolithic settlement was introduced. At the present stage of research it appears that the Sudety were inhabited mostly by societies of Western Mesolithic technocomplex. Nearly all sites from today's Czech Republic and some Polish sites (such as Ratno Dolne 2, Radzikowice) can be related to the Beuronien; apparently the Sowie Mountains microregion of Mesolithic settlement was strongly influenced by the Beuronien, which implies possible cultural overlapping with a similar nature to the Fien group. At the same time the north parts of the Sudety were exploited by groups of Lowland origin, mostly from the Komornica - Duvensee technocomplex (such as Grodziszcze 7, Jeglowa 2). Numerous materials characteristic of Janislawice culture were found at the site ofGrodziszcze 7; their position, however, is not entirely clear (cultural influence or separate settlement stage). The earliest penetrations of Mesolithic population can be dated to the Boreal period (Orlice Mountains settlement microregion, Ratno Dolne 2), yet the largest development of the settlement can be observed during the Atlantic period. It is most probable that Mesolithic societies were functioning in the Sudety at the time when early agriculture settlements were expanding in loess areas. The Baltic erratic flint, which was imported to the south beyond its deposit range in fluvioglacial and moraine formations of the north part of the Sudety, was used as predominant raw material for tool production. A wide range of local non-flint materials was used as well, even in areas abundant in erratic flint. This fact may be considered to be the basic feature of the Sudety Mesolithic specificity, similarly to a prevailing tendency to locate the sites on heavy clay soils, which were generally avoided by Lowland communities.
- PozycjaWyroby z kryształu górskiego z mezolitycznego stanowiska Jegłowa 2(Regionalny Ośrodek Studiów i Ochrony Środowiska Kulturowego, 2000) Bobak, Dariusz
- PozycjaStanowisko kultury pucharów lejowatych Samborowiczki 5, gm. Przeworno(1997) Bobak, Dariusz; Bronowicki, Jarosław
- PozycjaBadania eksperymentalne wpływu wysokiej temperatury na stan zachowania surowców krzemiennych(2008) Bobak, Dariusz; Kufel, Bernadeta; Lisowska, Ewa; Mikołajczyk, AnnaFlint artifacts are the most com mon finds on the archaeological sites from Early and Middle Stone Age. Considerable part of assemblages often bear traces resulted from high temperature in- fluence. These traces are usually cursorily described, because in the literature there are no complex studies cOl1Cerning heated flint materia!. 111e aim of our experimental studies, carried out in the llatural as well as in the controlled conditions, was to distinguish the features ofheated flint, that are characteristic for four kinds of Polish flint: cretaceous, Jurassie, chocolate and Świeciechów flint and to find the relationships between an appearance of those fcatures, a height of a temperature and time of heating. We believe that the results of our research can be used in the spatial analysis of arehaeological sites.
- PozycjaSzczątki dzieci w jamie osadowej kultury mierzanowickiej na stanowisku 39 w Dobkowicach, pow. jarosławski. Obiekt kultowy czy przejaw zwyczajów pogrzebowych?(Fundacja Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego, 2012) Bobak, Dariusz; Jarosz, Paweł; Mazurek, Mirosław; Okoński, Jerzy; Szczepanek, Anita;Artykuł przedstawia obiekt odkryty na osadzie z wczesnej epoki brązu (kultura mierzanowicka). W jamie nr 54 zdeponowano szczątki dzieci, zalegające na różnych poziomach. w części spągowej wyróżniono szczątki dwojga dzieci w wieku 1–1,5 roku oraz 4–5 lat; szkielety te są w znacznym stopniu rozproszone i przemieszczone. w kolejnej, czytelnej fazie użytkowania, jama została wtórnie wykorzystana jako miejsce pochówku dziecka w wieku ok. 12–15 lat, ale trudno ustalić jaki okres czasu dzieli oba zdarzenia.
- PozycjaArchaeology in a town, a town in archaeology. Selected issues of archaeological research of historical towns(Institute of Archaeology Rzeszów University, 2012) Rozwałka, AndrzejIn the introductory article of a volume that presents archaeological and other disciplinary research into a historical town, selected issues are discussed in the framework of the complicated research process required to understand the past of historical towns. This new field of science is facing many methodological and organizational problems. The main theme of this article is that the further development of archaeological explorations of the town requires the definition of terminology, holistic research methods (most of all stratigraphy) and an acceptance of an interdisciplinary canon. Historical archaeology dealing with towns has transformed itself into a specific field of archaeology that uses familiar excavation techniques, but differs from prehistoric archaeology by drawing on sources from other fields like history, town-planning, architecture, cultural anthropology and with its own descriptive language of past times.
- PozycjaSome remarks on early medieval churches in Kraków(Institute of Archaeology Rzeszów University, 2012) Pianowski, ZbigniewThe research of the oldest churches belonging to Kraków agglomeration have been continuously conducted since the second half of the 19th century. In Kraków there have been about thirty churches including the sacral building from the 11th–13th century. Most of them were recognized during the archaeological and architectural research and the others are known from the written sources. The main discoveries include three pre-Romanesque rotundas in the area of a burg city of Kraków, and a St. Benedykt’s rotunda on the Lasota Hill. Further research provide more information regarding the process of using secondary material. The development in the research field makes it possible to change the knowledge about the function of some buildings e.g a semicircular wall from over the Smocza Jama (earlier an apse of the church, now a circular fortifying tower). In literature we can find a number of reconstructions of early medieval sacral buildings with relics in some of them and the remained ones are only theoretical ideas. A few temples are still undiscovered and unrecognized, and some are waiting for its architectural structure to be verified. There could be an attempt of reconstructing a Romanesque Benedictine Abbey in Tyniec and a part of bishop’s residence or cathedral’s capitol in Wawel. The main task for the future is to recognize a settlement background of the churches in Okół and its area.
- PozycjaDie Grössen der die urgeschichtlichen Gräberfelder nutzenden Bevölkerungsgruppen (am Beispiel der Tarnobrzeg-Lausitzer Kultur),(Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN Oddział w Krakowie, 2010) Czopek, SylwesterIn the first part of the article author critically evaluated methods used in estimation of functioning time of praehistoric cemeteries. As examples served cemeteries of Tarnobrzeg Group of Lusatian Culture Circle. In the second part of the article the analysis of detailed archaeological and anthropolological data according to spatial distribution of graves was shown. In a consequence of this a time of functioning of separate groups of graves on various cemeteries was estimated as well as the time of usage of the whole cemeteries.
- PozycjaKilka uwag o archeologii funeralnej w Polsce(Instytut Archeologii UR, 2012) Czopek, SylwesterArtykuł traktuje o tzw. archeologii funeralnej. Pod tym pojęciem należy rozumieć tę część archeologii, która zajmuje się badaniem i interpretacją grobów oraz cmentarzysk. Autor dokonuje krótkiego przeglądu traktowania tego typu źródeł w polskiej archeologii. Następnie zwraca uwagę na interdyscyplinarny charakter tej subdyscypliny – archeologii funeralnej (antropologia, etnologia, religioznawstwo, historia). Zaawansowanie badań poszukujących w źródłach archeologicznych uniwersalnych treści interpretacyjnych może prowadzić do wydzielenia nowej dyscypliny – „funerologii”.