Nierówności społeczne a wzrost gospodarczy z. 75(3)/2023


Ostatnio nadesłane materiały

Aktualnie wyświetlane 1 - 5 z 10
  • Pozycja
    Changes in Ukraine’s foreign trade as a reflection of its progress in integration with the European Union
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2023-09) Wziątek-Kubiak, Anna; Adamiv, Marta
    The study aims to assess changes in the ability of Ukrainian goods to compete in the EU market. It reflects Ukraine’s progress towards EU integration in the run-up to Russia’s attack on Ukraine. Using foreign trade measures, including international specialisation, we show the specifics of Ukraine’s integration into the EU. By estimating the level and changes in the market shares of Ukraine’s commodity groups in the EU market, we show its progress in penetrating this market compared to non-EU countries. On the one hand, the geographical structure of Ukraine’s foreign trade changed radically between 2010 and 2021. On the other hand, more minor changes in the commodity structure of exports and Ukraine’s international specialisation were accompanied by an increased market share of Ukraine’s exports in the EU market. It reflected an improvement in the ability of Ukrainian goods to compete, thus fulfilling one of Ukraine’s accession criteria. Calculated on the basis of market shares, the increase in the ability of Ukrainian goods to compete is confirmed by estimates of export competitiveness indicators: the Balassa index of revealed comparative advantages and the Lafay index. Levels and changes in the three indicators varied between commodity groups. The increase in the market shares of three commodity groups (raw materials, so-called “other manufactured goods” (medium and low technology) and food products) was accompanied by significant and increasing levels of export competitiveness indicators. The decline in the market shares of other commodity groups was accompanied by low and declining levels of export specialisation indicators. Thus, Ukraine’s integration into the EU has so far been based on the expansion of competitive and competitive-enhancing goods, in the production of which Ukraine specialises.
  • Pozycja
    The place of culture in sustainable development of European countries – homogeneity or diversity of the phenomenon?
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2023-09) Krzyminiewska, Grażyna; Pondel, Hanna
    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the level of sustainable development in selected European countries – taking into account its economic, social, environmental and cultural dimensions, as well as the level of diversification of the phenomenon in the entities under analysis. The analysis assumes that culture has a positive impact on sustainable development measures. The selection of countries was based on indicators of their ethnic and cultural diversity. The time range of the analysis is 2012 and 2019, and the data source was the Eurostat database. A taxonomic method (linear ordering method) was used in the analysis of the research problem. The achievement of the aim was determined by limitations in the selection of indicators and the availability and validity of data in European statistics. Based on research to date, it can be concluded that, in the cultural aspect, the same number of countries presented a very high and high level of sustainable development (5) as those presenting a low and very low level (5). The cultural aspect has substantially greater meaning for the sustainability development of the countries characterised by high cultural diversity. Taking this aspect into account while conducting analyses makes it possible use the most valuable, endogenous characteristics of a given population for forging an effective relationship with the other elements of sustainable development.
  • Pozycja
    Prosumerism of companies – opportunities and challenges in the consumers’ opinion
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2023-09) Szul, Elżbieta
    Prosumerism refers to the practices and activities of companies aimed at including and involving consumers in the co-creation of value and market offerings. The involvement of consumers takes various forms, from encouraging consumers to share their opinions and knowledge, modify the market offering, adapt it to their needs, and participate in its creation. Companies, through such activities, respond to the expectations of consumers who are active and do not want to be just passive recipients of the market offering. The paper addresses the issue of prosumptionism of companies in the consumers’ evaluation. It presents the research results on the prosumptionism of companies – the benefits, opportunities and threats related to it, as well as consumers’ expectations regarding the activities of companies. Although prosumption and prosumerism have become more common and consumers are increasingly prosumers (even though they are often unaware of it), in addition to the perceived opportunities and benefits, problems or threats to companies are also apparent.
  • Pozycja
    Positive work environment in public administration
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2023-09) Piotrowska, Maria
    Based on the knowledge on motivation in software development teams, who have used agile methods for several years, this research determines the relationships between motivators, individuals’ characteristics, personality traits and job outcomes in two age groups of public servants in Poland. This study aims to identify motivators that significantly contribute to creating a positive work environment in which public servants feel satisfied with their work and feel connected to their organisation. The Motivators, Outcomes, Characteristics and Context (MOCC) model, developed by Sharp et al. (2009) to investigate motivation in software engineering, is used to understand the complex topic of motivation in public administration. The analysis of the relationships between the motivators and job outcomes, taking into account achievement-orientation and innovativeness, as well as personality traits, is based on mediation models. The source of the data for the model estimations is a questionnaire survey carried out among public administration employees aged 25–45 with higher education. The findings show that public servants respond best to three motivators, namely development opportunities, respect and teamwork. Younger public servants need a clear development path, while older public servants want respect from their superiors. Achievement-orientation in younger public servants and innovativeness in older employees, combined with openness and agreeableness, translate into better job outcomes provided that the employees are satisfied with the teamwork.
  • Pozycja
    Patients’ perceptions of ambulatory healthcare work organisation and communication in healthcare entities
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2023-09) Hampel, Katarzyna; Ucieklak-Jeż, Paulina
    The aim of the presented research was to analyse the relationship between assessments regarding the perception of elements of organisation and communication of a healthcare entity and the age of patients. The work focused on non-medical benefits for the patient, which may influence their satisfaction and the choices they make. The main rationale justifying the need to conduct research was the desire to verify patients’ perceptions, which was expressed as the degree of satisfaction with the clinic’s services. Two aspects were examined: work organisation and communication between the clinic and the patient. The research was conducted in medical facilities in the city of Częstochowa among patients currently using ambulatory medical care. The test groups were divided depending on the age of the respondents. In order to obtain data, an original survey questionnaire was used. The following research hypotheses were formulated: (H1) age of respondents influences perceptions of elements of the clinic’s work organisation; (H2) age of respondents influences perceptions of elements of the clinic’s communication with patients; (H3) satisfaction with the healthcare entity’s services (in terms of organisation and communication) increases with patient age. The basis for formulating the hypotheses was a review of research on social inequalities, inequalities in access to healthcare and patient satisfaction studies. In order to verify the hypotheses, statistical methods were used: the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Calculations were made using the Statistica software. The obtained results confirmed the validity of all hypotheses. The Mann-Whitney test confirmed that the age of respondents significantly affects the assessment of work organisation and communication between the clinic and the patient (H1 and H2). Furthermore, the obtained Spearman correlation values confirmed that patient satisfaction with the clinic’s services increases with the patient’s age (H3).