Nowożytny (?) grot oszczepu z Rudnika nad Sanem, pow. niżański, woj. podkarpackie

Obrazek miniatury
Florek, Marek
Stępnik, Tomasz
Tytuł czasopisma
Tytuł tomu
Muzeum Okręgowe w Rzeszowie
Instytut Archeologii UR
Fundacja Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego
Wydawnictwo „Mitel”
An iron spearhead accidentally found in 2020 in the woods of Rudnik nad Sanem, was initially described as a piece of the spear and dated, on the basis of its shape, back to the Middle Ages, most probably to 10th–13th century. In the course of conservation work the remains of wood from the socket were restored. Wood species analysis revealed that the shaft was made of maple tree. C14 dating shows that it originated from Modern Period, most likely from the 17th century. In light of these discoveries one should conclude that the spearhead was not part of a spear, but of a javelin used as a hunting weapon, probably in the 17th century.
The information about an iron spearhead accidentally found in Rudnik nad Sanem that was described as a medieval spearhead was published in Acta Militaria Mediaevalia, Vol. 16. In the course of conservation work the remains of wood were restored from the socket and subjected to wood species analysis and C14 dating procedure. The research revealed that the shaft was made of maple tree (Acer sp.) that was cut down between 1515 and 1800, most probably in the 17th century. Due to its properties, maple wood is not suitable to be used for spear shaft production. Studies show that the shafts were usually made of ash, less often of oak, occasionally of other wood species. Maple wood, on the other hand, might have been used to make javelins, i.e. throwing weapon. Taking into consideration the modern chronology of the remains of the shaft found in Rudnik, it seems that this arrowhead was used for hunting rather than for combat. Such a possibility was also suggested in the initial communication on the arrowhead. Ethnographic works confirm that javelins were used for hunting on the Slavic territories until the 19th century. The case of the arrowhead from Rudnik indicates the need of great caution and thoroughness when ascribing the chronology of artefacts found by accident, without any context.
Artykuł jest poszerzoną i uzupełnioną wersją komunikatu opublikowanego w XVII tomie „Acta Militaria Mediaevalia” (Florek, Stępnik 2021).
Słowa kluczowe
javelin , spearhead , wooden shaft , maple , Modern Period
Materiały i Sprawozdania Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego, t. 42/2021, s. 219–228