Житло з софіївської борщагівки та прояви одного із давніх слов’янських обрядів

Obrazek miniatury
Готун, Ігор А.
Горбаненко, Сергій А.
Сергєєва, Марина С.
Tytuł czasopisma
Tytuł tomu
Muzeum Okręgowe w Rzeszowie
Instytut Archeologii UR
Fundacja Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego
Oficyna Wydawnicza „Zimowit”
Excavations conducted at the medieval settlement in Sofijiwska Borszczagiwka, near Kiev, resulted in the discovery of an interesting object – a hut dated to the twelfth or the first part of thirteenth century. Its fill contained numerous paleobotanical materials, which were submitted for the specialistic analysis. The location of discovered grains of barley, wheat, millet, oats, grasses (especially in relation to the oven) indicates, according to the researchers, practicing customs known from ethnographic studies. It related to the completion of harvest time involving e.g. placing the last sheaf (“diduch”, dziad) in one of the corners of the dwelling.
Peculiarities of objects of mass buildings could reflect both specifics of material culture and some features of the spiritual culture of the population. This idea was discussed in a large number of scientific papers. It was possible to trace some manifestations of this phenomenon inter alia in unfortified settlements in Southern Rus. But the fixed phenomena were primarily heating installations. Recent work on settlement in Sophiyivska Borshchagivka in the suburbs of Kiev allow to suggest the existence of other manifestations of the ancient rites of the Slavs. The settlement was discovered in 1956 and was partially excavated in the 1990s. The Northern expedition of Institute of Archaeology NAS Ukraine studies this locality since 2007 in the context of the research of antiquities in the microregion and public popularization of knowledge about the past. During this time, there was disclosed a plot of 0.19 hectares, two plots of 15 hectares, two more of more than 0.12 hectares, and four were each of 0.10 hectares. The work continue on other plots. One of the buildings dated to 12th – a first half of 13th cent. studied in this settlement consisted of two rooms that were residential and unheated. It was destroyed in a fire. The study of materials of the filling of this building allows us to find out the remains of cereals in its corner situated diagonally from the oven. There were grains of rye (Secale cereale), emmer (Triticum dicoccon), oats (Avena sativa) or wild oats (Avena fatua), millet (Panicum miliaceum), indeterminate cereals (Cerealia) and a significant amount of barley membranous (Hordeum vulgare). There were also a straw and pine charcoal (Pіnus sylvestris). At the same time, the sample from the far corner consisted only of charred barley grains membranous (Hordeum vulgare) combined with oak charcoal (Quercus sp.). On some embers the traces of processing could be seen. This placement of palaeobotanical material allowes us to to draw parallels with well-known ethnologically rite, that is worship of last sheaf that left after harvesting and placed in ceremonial corner of the dwelling. It is also comparable with Christmas tradition to put a sheaf of Guard named didukh (or Kolyada, did – grandfather) to the same corner. It was often made of different kinds of cereals. Moreover taking into account the traditional storage of seed grain fund in seed pits often found in this settlement, we have reason to assume, that the selective grain of barley in the second sample, possibly stored in oak barrels, could be raw material for preparation of the holiday baking (corochun, crachun) or Christmas barley porridge with honey. The relationship of materials in question with the period of harvesting is possible, however, their relationship to Christmas is more preferable due to increased peril of fires during the winter heating of the house. But whatever the a final decision about the time of archaeologization of complex in question could be, there is no doubt that there were fixed the probable material manifestation of a calendar rites of the ancient Slavs.
Słowa kluczowe
Middle Ages , Ukraine , hut , paleobotanical research , harvest rituals
Materiały i Sprawozdania Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego, t. 37/2016, s. 325–332