Obiekt kultury trypolskiej z etapu CII na stanowisku Liuczyn-Zawidow 3 (Wyżyna Wołyńska, Ukraina)

Obrazek miniatury
Verteletskyi, Dmytro
Tytuł czasopisma
Tytuł tomu
Muzeum Okręgowe w Rzeszowie
Instytut Archeologii UR
Fundacja Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego
Oficyna Wydawnicza „Zimowit”
The article introduces new data on rescue research conducted in the Volhynian Upland. The partially destroyed feature of Trypillia culture was accidentally discovered in April 2020. It was decided to explore immediately the feature, as it was threatened with complete destruction. During the surveys materials that have mixed features and are characteristic of several local groups (Brynzeny-Żwanets, Horiv-Nowomalin, Trojaniw) ware recorded in the object as well as outisde of it. However, the predominant attributes affiliate to the Trojaniw group (type Kostianec-Kurgany). Among the materials there were traces of the Funnel Beaker culture (FBK) and Baden culture. Furthermore, a fragment of bone was recorded at the bottom of the object, which was sold by radiocarbon analysis in the Poznan laboratory (4585 + -35 BP).
The article analyzes the feature of the Trypillian culture (feature No. 1), accidentally discovered at the site Liuchyn 3 – khutor Zawidow in May 2020. Site Liuchyn 3 – khutor Zawidow is located 3.2 km west of the town Ostrog (Rivne region). This settlement is situated on the western slopes of the Rivne Plateau at the altitude of 196.5 m above sea level. (Grabarka valley level – 196 m above sea level). It occupies a low point bar on the right bank of the Grabarka River. This site was discovered by O. Romanczuk in 1983. The outline of feature No. 1 was recorded at the level of a contemporary dirt road in the central part of the site. During the surface research, the presence of movable artefacts was observed both on the road itself and outside it, at the arable field. Due to the progressive degradation of the archaeological site, it was decided to perform urgent rescue excavations. The researched pit had a bath-shaped cross-section. Its width in the east-west line was – 1.15 m, while in the north-south line – 0.5 m. Its maximum depth was 0.3 m. The fill consisted of a uniform layer of black peat soil. Below it there was a solid loess subsoil. The damaged surface layer provided 8 pottery sherds, while referring to its fill of the feature No. 1, there were 34 pottery sherds and only 3 fragments of flint flakes (Turonian flint). One piece of flake is burned out. Moreover, a hoe-type bone tool was obtained from the fill of the pit. With reference to the characteristic ceramic fragments obtained from the damaged pit, it is worth mentioning fragments from the following vessel forms: a pot, a wide-mouth vessel and a bowl. Analogies to ceramic materials can be found in many sites of the Trypillian culture in the Volhynian Upland and in the basin of the middle Dniester, i.e. the Brynzeny-Żwaniec group, the Horiv-Nowomalin group and the Trojaniw group. The dominant material is typical for the Kostianiec – Kurgany sites of the Trojaniw group. As for the site 3 Liuchyn – khutor Zawidow, the pots with a single cord impression, made in the chamotte technology, coexisted with the pots made with an admixture of mussel shells. A similar situation took place at the sites of the Horiv-Nowomalin group. The feature No. 1 from the Liuczyn-Zawidow site included characteristic single elements typical of the Trypillian culture (cooking pottery with the technology of mussel shells admixture, tableware from the kitchen group), however, the most common pottery vessels were made in the chamotte technology, with a smooth or polished surface, painted in red. The last elements are characteristic for the Funnel Beaker culture and the Baden culture (Rybicka 2016; 2017). As part of the grant implemented at the Institute of Archeology of the University of Rzeszów, it was decided to conduct radiocarbon analyses. In order to establish the absolute age of the site, a fragment of an animal bone found at the bottom of the feature No. 1 was assigned. As a result of analyses carried out at the Poznań Radiocarbon Laboratory, the designation 4585±35 BP was obtained. The content of the researched feature may indicate some changes as well as the adaptation of Trypillian and Beaker -Baden impulses. It is possible that the domination of ceramics made in the chamotte technology was characteristic not only for the discussed feature, but also for the entire settlement. The artefacts discovered there correspond to the late stages of the Horiv-Nowomalin group in the south-eastern part of the Volhynian Upland; Brynzeny-Żwaniec group in the basin of the middle Dniester and tributaries of the Prut; Kosenivka group located on the right tributaries of the middle Dnieper (sites of the Sharin III type). The complex of feature 1 at the site Liuczyn-Zawidow 3 may correspond to the early stage of sites in the Kostianiec-Kurgany type (e.g. Werteleckij 2016b; Peleszcziszin 1998a; 1998b; Werteleckij, Bardeckij 2017). It can be dated approximately to 3400–3300/3200 BC.
Słowa kluczowe
Volhynian Upland , Trypillia culture , 14C dating , Horiw-Nowomalin group , Kostianec-Kurgany group
Materiały i Sprawozdania Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego, t. 41/2020, s. 5–15