Grodzisko w Chotyńcu – problem ochrony konserwatorskiej i zagospodarowania dla potrzeb edukacyjnych

Obrazek miniatury
Czopek, Sylwester
Tytuł czasopisma
Tytuł tomu
Muzeum Okręgowe w Rzeszowie
Instytut Archeologii UR
Fundacja Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego
Oficyna Wydawnicza „Zimowit”
The article, while discussing the importance of archaeological research conducted for several years within the Early Iron Age fortified settlement in Chotyniec, focuses on the need to make decisions considering the further protection of this unique site. Furthermore, it draws up the program of establishing the Chotyniec Culture Park as a place of protection, research and popularization of knowledge about prehistory. The idea of public archaeology fits in a broader regional context with the need to protect the local cultural landscape.
Since 2016, the excavations have been carried out on an Early Iron Age fortified settlement in Chotyniec (south-eastern Poland; 8 km from the border with Ukraine). This unique place is the furthest site of this type to the west, associated with the forest-stepped variant of the Scythian cultural circle. Together with the nearby open settlements, it forms a distinct microregion (the so-called Chotyniec agglomeration), lying in the so-called Brama Przemyska (a contact zone between the Eastern and Western Europe). The discoveries made so far have already gained apparent recognition, mainly due to fragments of Greek amphorae from the 7th / 6th and 6th centuries BC which were used to transport wine. Thus, Chotyniec is currently the most north-western place where such ancient imports were discovered, which came there by means of the Scythians. The range of the discoveries entitles us to propose a protection program and further research on the settlement. These are the issues that this article want to highlight here. The first problem that has been emphasised is the need for further excavations, still resulting from the poor exploration of the entire settlement complex of almost 36 ha. The current state of research includes less than 2% of its area. Although the crucial elements were examined (e.g. the so-called zolnik – a cult and ritual place, fragments of ramparts), many doubts remained, which appeared after the complete examination of the surface of the site by means of geophysical methods. Further research faces a significant limitation due to the continuous agricultural land use of the entire area of the enclosure and three third of the circumference of the ramparts. Furthermore, it is necessary to add that the ownership structure of the plots (private ownership) is unfavourable, which also have had an impact on the research so far. It is worth mentioning that the Chotyniec settlement is significantly transformed, and many parts (the rampart) have already been transformed by 20th-century farming. Considering these premises, it is necessary to change the ownership structure (e.g. land purchase). This action will enable the formulation of a protection program, associated with the possibility of further studies, as well as wide popularization - dissemination of knowledge about excavations and their significance. The proposed solution is to create a culture park ensuring that these three criteria are met. Therefore, the cooperation of the local governments of two neighbouring communes - Radymno and Stubno is necessary in this respect, because their border runs through the fortified settlement. Moreover, the support of the Podkarpackie Provincial Conservation Officer is also indispensable. Culture parks in relation to archaeological heritage are recommended in Polish legislation and international guidelines as the most effective form of protection, which also provides the possibility of implementing a wide educational program in the spirit of public archaeology. In the future Chotyniec Culture Park could obtain the status of a museum with a separate exhibition pavilion, built within the currently existing Field Research Station of the Institute of Archaeology of the University of Rzeszów. The article contains suggestions for the development of the settlement, and even an outline of a visiting route. It is also very important to recommend that the archaeological heritage should be perceived as one of the elements of the protection of the cultural landscape, hence other important points located in the vicinity are worth mentioning (e.g. Orthodox churches and churches, WW1 cemeteries, manors and parks). Natural values associated with the San and Visznia valleys cannot also be overlooked.
Słowa kluczowe
Chotyniec , the fortified settlement , cultural heritage , culture park , public archaeology , education
Materiały i Sprawozdania Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego, t. 41/2020, s. 111–126