Water-related diseases following flooding in South Asian countries – a healthcare crisis

Obrazek miniatury
Ahmed, Syed Hassan
Shaikh, Taha Gul
Waseem, Summaiyya
Zahid, Maha
Mohamed Ahmed, Khabab Abbasher Hussien
Ullah, Irfan
Hasibuzzaman, Md Al
Tytuł czasopisma
Tytuł tomu
Publishing Office of the University of Rzeszow
Introduction and aim. Industrialization and elevated greenhouse gas emissions pose significant threats to the environment, raising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and leading to climate change. Climate change may impact human health either directly via increasing extreme weather frequency and altering disease patterns or indirectly via social institutions and disrupted global supply chain resulting in consequences like undernutrition Material and methods. This review conducted a comprehensive literature search on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library, from inception to September 2022, using relevant keywords. Analysis of the literature. Massive flooding in South Asia is leading to a surge in water-related diseases. Cholera outbreaks have occurred in countries like Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh following floods, and waterborne diseases like typhoid, rota virus, hepatitis A, and leptospirosis are prevalent in flood-affected regions. Additionally, Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter, Shigella, and Polio outbreaks are reported. Water-scarce diseases, including scabies, impetigo, and cellulitis, are also on the rise in flood-affected areas. Water-based diseases, such as dracunculiasis, schistosomiasis, and Leishmaniasis, pose significant risks. Vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue, and Leishmaniasis, are becoming more prevalent due to flooded areas providing breeding grounds for disease vectors like mosquitoes and sandflies. These diseases are now more common in flood-af fected regions, affecting millions of people. Conclusion. Urgent measures are needed, including early warning systems, resilient infrastructure, drainage maintenance, and stricter land-use regulations, to reduce the impact of these natural disasters. International cooperation and immediate action at national and global levels are essential to mitigate the health crises caused by flooding and other natural disasters.
Słowa kluczowe
floods , South Asia , vector-borne disease , water-based disease , water-borne disease , water-washed disease
European Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine T. 22, z. 1 (2024), s. 232–242