Social reintegration exemplified by the specific example of the social integration centre in Sanok

Obrazek miniatury
Frączek, Piotr
Drozd, Sylwia
Tytuł czasopisma
Tytuł tomu
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego
Modern societies are always different, regardless of their social and economic level. On the one hand, there are individuals who succeed in the labour market, fully participating in both social and political life. On the other hand, many people are unable to meet their basic, existential needs and they are marginalised in society due to circumstances beyond their control. Social exclusion and the problems connected with it represent a significant challenge for current social policy in all countries in the world. The term “social exclusion” is used and it definitely should be defined. In literature on the subject there are many attempts to define what social exclusion (Dowling 1999: 245-261, Szarfenberg 2010) exactly is. However, the definition of S. Golinowska and P. Broda-Wysocki seems to be the simplest. They noticed that social exclusion is defined in two contexts. The first one is related to non-participation which means that an individual, a family or a group does not participate in social life (lack of participation); while the other context is related to impoverishment. In the latter context, social exclusion is used interchangeably with poverty (Golinowska, Broda-Wysocki 2005: 32). Without further considering the terminology, in the present text it has been adopted that social exclusion means a deprivation of the basic social needs of, or an unsatisfactory place in, society. However, combating social exclusion requires cooperation, which means not only from a trans-sectoral partnership (the public sector, the nongovernmental sector, the business sector and the private sphere of families and communities), but also cooperation between the individual areas of policies, services and their institutions: employment policy and vocational integration, social work, youth policy, educational policy, family policy and others (Evers, Przedecka 2012: 54). Building a social infrastructure becomes a significant challenge, especially at the local level which provides social services. A trans-sectoral partnership is favourable for both sectors i.e. the public and non-governmental sector. A lack of cooperation between tchem can lead to many problems. On the one hand, truthful information about social problems occurring at the local level can be unavailable to the public sector. On the other hand, the non-governmental sector may not be able to bear the costs of creating and operating social entities. Cooperation at the local level is particularly needed at the local level as it allows the ability to look not only at the needs expressed by a certain group of people but also at the mechanisms for satisfying their needs (Błędowski 2002). An assessment of needs at the local level is an opportunity to properly identify local needs and adapt forms of action to local circumstances. It is also the most suitable way to take action aimed at preventing and combating social exclusion (Błędowski, Kubicki 2006). In Poland, according to social employment law (2011), there are social groups that risk being excluded from social life i.e.: the homeless, the longterm unemployed, people addicted to drugs and other psychotropic things, people with mental disabilities, disabled people (Act dated 20.06.2003). Due to the particularities of operations undertaken with the inclusion of these kinds of people it is necessary to construct an adequate social infrastructure. Centres for Social Integration (SIC) are one of the entities of that infrastructure and they are set out in social employment law (Act dated 13.06.2003). The main aim of these entities is professional and social reintegration, for example through: developing skills that allows persons who are vulnerable to risk of the social exclusion to take an active role in society, acquiring professional skills and vocational training, learning how to plan life and meet the needs of one’s own effort, skills concerning the rational management of money. However, in Poland the creation of SICs is facing many barriers. They are described in K. Kietlińska’s report, i.e.: the undefined status of the SIC as an employer, lack of adequate management, lack of adequate staff that can achieve the social and professional reintegration, difficulties in obtaining funds to start up an activity, complicated law concerning the funding sources of a SIC (Kietlińska 2010: 173).
Słowa kluczowe
social reintegration , social problems , unemployment
Szluz Beata, Matulayová Tatiana, Pešatová Ilona, Cross-sectoral cooperation in order to solve social problems, s. 49-61