Tyfus, ospa, cholera i inne choroby jako doświadczenia polskich zesłańców na Syberii w XIX wieku

Obrazek miniatury
Chrostek, Mariusz
Tytuł czasopisma
Tytuł tomu
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego
The article deals with the problem of the diseases suffered by Polish political exiles in Siberia, as well as the associated treatment methods and circumstances (the role of doctors, hospitals, aid from other Polish citizens and the local population). We learn from the preserved diaries, journals and letters that the exiles would fall ill both during the murderous march to Siberia (thousands of kilometers crossed on foot, harsh winters, malnutrition, disastrous hygienic conditions in the sleeping quarters) and in their places of forced settlement. The exiles fell victim to epidemics (typhus, cholera, smallpox, scurvy) and other diseases, some of which unknown to European medicine. Further on, we learn about Russian hospitals whose gruesome conditions only accelerated the death of patients (dirt, stench, spoiled food, lack of care and medications, killing the sick in order to rob them). The worst of all those facilities were military field hospitals (victims dying of terrible flogging, the highest mortality). Polish exiled doctors, much better educated and prepared for the profession than Russian doctors, were often the only ones in various parts of Siberia who were able to cure many of the diseases and even fight epidemics. They would conduct extensive medical practices, treating their compatriots mostly without charge; they also helped many Russians and ethnic peoples (e.g. Benedykt Dybowski, Wacław Lasocki). Conventional methods of treatment, mentioned by the exiles throughout the 19th century, included: bloodletting, causing diarrhea, vomiting and sweats, as well as applying skin-irritating patches or medicines based on herbs and rectified spirit. In the paper, we also learn about non-conventional methods of healing. Where there were no doctors to be found, we discover the secrets of folk medicine. We explore with admiration the moods and attitudes of Poles in the face of serious diseases – the extraordinary solidarity between the exiles, their self-sacrifice and willpower (incessantly caring for the sick).
Słowa kluczowe
Siberia , polish exiles , diseases in Siberia , Russian hospitals in the 19th century , doctors in Siberia , typhus , smallpx , cholera , Syberia , polscy zesłańcy , choroby na Syberii , epidemie rosyjskie , szpitale w XIX w. na Syberii , lekarze na Syberii , tyfus , ospa
Tematy i Konteksty 11(16) 2021, s. 315–342