Food choices during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus.
Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is continuously increasing worldwide. Nutritional factors are considered to play important role in GDM development. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess a relationship between frequency of consuming particular foods and GDM. Also pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during gestation, maternal age, pregnancy week at the time of delivery, newborn birthweight, family history of diabetes, educational status and place of residence were included into analysis. Study group consisted of 25 women who developed GDM, while control group consisted of 25 age-matched women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during gestation. All study participants completed the food frequency questionnaire with additional socio-demographic, anthropometric and pregnancy course data. Women with GDM significantly more frequent consumed white bread, white rice, sausages/frankfurters and fast-foods, while they significantly less frequent consumed whole meal bread, milk, sour dairy products, fruit and vegetables. They had also higher pre-pregnancy BMI, greater weight gain during pregnancy, and their newborns had higher birthweight. Results of our study indicate a crucial role of food choices during pregnancy in GDM development. It also indicate the need for professional dietary advice from the very beginning of gestation or even before conception, and during the entire pregnancy.
Gestational diabetes mellitus , BMI , Weight gain , Food