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- PozycjaAktywność kobiet w wyborach na urząd prezydenta miasta Rzeszowa w latach 2002–2018(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Niewiadomska-Cudak, MałgorzataThe article deals with the activity of women in the elections to the enforcement authority in Rzeszów over the period of 16 years, i.e. from the moment the act on the direct election of a commune head, town mayor and president came into force. An attempt was made to analyze the women's electoral participation in the candidacy for the position of mayor or president from the political science perspective. The choice of the place of this city is not without significance, as the feminization rate (the women’s involvement in local government authorities in cities with poviat status), indicates that Rzeszów came 62 out of 66 cities (Swianiewicz, Łukomska, 2020, s. 9). Examining the representation of female voters in five elections not only gauges the phenomenon of female gender participation, but also helps to understand the problem of under-representation of women among presidents at the city level with poviat rights. The article complements the discussions on the participation of women in local government authorities, but also fills a significant cognitive gap in research on the representation of women in local politics.
- PozycjaTrzy dekady Rzeszowa 1989–2018 – analiza społecznych przemian w mieście(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Kotarski, HubertThe article presents the results of empirical research carried out at the Institute of Sociology of the University of Rzeszów in 2009 and in 2018. The research was conducted on representative samples of adults living in Rzeszów (more than 500 people in 2009 and more than 600 people in 2018). The article focuses on the analysis of factors that determine the rank of the city, its position as well as objective and subjective factors of the quality of urban life. An attempt was made to reflect on the most valuable capital determining the future of Rzeszów – its inhabitants. Therefore, their civic activity, social capital, the current perception of the city's problems, its strengths and disadvantages and the various elements that make up the assessment of the quality of life in the city were analyzed. The main focus was on examining selected subjective aspects of the quality of life based on the opinions of the inhabitants of Rzeszów. Therefore, the overall level of satisfaction with the life in the city and the feeling of being able to meet the specific needs of the inhabitants of Rzeszów, the conditions and opportunities offered by the city, the sense of security, the quality assessment of – among others – cultural and educational offer, medical care, and the public transport were all examined. Altogether, these aspects undoubtedly constitute useful material for local governments managing a city which aims to be a metropolis, not only regionally or nationally, and can also serve as useful material for showing the diversity of research subjects and research approaches regarding local government units.
- PozycjaNowy kierunek badań ewolucji modeli samorządu terytorialnego w Niemczech z perspektywy procesu komunalizacji i dekomunalizacji(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Balcerek-Kosiarz, MartaThe aim of the article is to indicate a new direction of research on the evolution of system models of local self-government in Germany in the perspective of communalization and de-communalization. Communalization can be used to explain legal regulations of a local government, which are similar to the South German model and, on the other hand, to explain how analogous regulations that strengthen the role of the legislative body, both in the municipal self-government and in the county self-government, function in the same federal states. De-communalization enables to investigate the role of starosta (Starost) in the organizational structure of county self-government. The core result of the study is the fact that on the basis of the three research criteria (geographic, historic, and the range of relations between legislative and executive bodies) the process of communalization of municipal self-governments and county self-governments in 11 federal states has been duly corroborated.
- PozycjaKondycja finansowa samorządu terytorialnego w Polsce. Przyczyny zadłużenia i propozycje reform(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Osiński, Joachim; Zawiślińska, IzabelaThe authors aimed to examine the phenomenon of indebtedness on the part of the local self-government units in Poland. The situation is evolving, and as such it pertains to an overwhelming majority of municipalities and counties. The barrier to increased indebtedness was established in the form of a unit-specific debt indicator, which came into force in 2014, and the amendments came into existence on the 1st of January, 2020. The composition of the indicator aims to allow the Regional Chambers of Auditors to monitor the proceedings and prevent continued deterioration. However, the authors indicate that the crux of the issue that the local self-government units face is the insufficient revenue they generate, which calls for an increased allocation of central budgetary funds to the local self-government units in the form of grants and subsidies as well as the designing of numerous ways to finance their operations. Drawing upon the experiences gained by other states, the authors postulate the launch of the territorial and resource-based consolidation reforms on the part of the lower local self-government units – municipalities. This is believed to enhance a more effective leveraging of the endogenous resources on the part of the local self-government units, maximising the economies of scale that pertain to the local economy as well as societal resources. The lower local self-government units in Poland were established over 20 years ago. Since the establishment, the units have come to represent the entities that are ineffective in a structural and functional manner. Furthermore, they fail to ensure the modern development path of local communities. The examination that has been conducted validates the need for reforms and it portrays the currents behind.
- PozycjaPodejścia teoretyczne do badania demokratyzacji i autokratyzacji na poziomie lokalnym i regionalnym(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Szymański, AdamIn the literature on democratization and autocratization, one of the areas which clearly shows a gap in the theoretical framework is a very important territorial dimension of these processes. This article is aimed at proposing the theoretical approaches based on two main pillars, which can be used in studies on democratization and autocratization at the subnational levels. The first one refers to democracy and changes of political regimes (approaches to democratization /autocratization and more static issues of the quality of democracy and local democracy). The second one refers to the territorial politics, accounting for the multilevel and network governance as well as theories of decentralization. Eventually, the author also presents possible preliminary directions of research, within which the territorial politics can be either an independent, alternatively intervening variable (studies on causes of changes regarding the political regime) or a dependent variable (analysis of effects of these changes).