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- PozycjaReview of the development of copper oxides with titanium dioxide thin-film solar cells(2020) Sawicka-Chudy, Paulina; Sibiński, Maciej; Rybak-Wilusz, Elżbieta; Cholewa, Marian; Wisz, Grzegorz; Yavorskyi, RostyslavCopper oxide-titanium dioxide (TiO2) p–n junctions are promising materials for photovoltaic devices and may reduce production costs due to their low cost and inexpensive production methods compared with silicon solar cells. The present review compares solar cells made with copper oxides combined with TiO2–TiO2/Cu2O and TiO2/CuO heterojunctions, and “cascade heterojunction systems.” First, we describe the main properties of titanium (iv) dioxide (TiO2), cuprous oxide (Cu2O), and cupric oxide (CuO), and their potential applications. Next, we explain the concept of copper oxide and TiO2 heterojunctions. We summarize and present the photovoltaic characteristics (efficiency, fill factor, circuit current density, and open circuit voltage), thickness, preparation method, and electrode type for solar cells comprising copper oxide and TiO2. The efficiency of the solar cells ranged from 0.0005% to 1.62%. The thickness of the TiO2 and cupric oxide layers ranged from 0.06 to 16 µm, and from 0.18 to 1.5 µm, respectively, depending on the fabrication method. Additionally, we review and discuss the available combinations of copper oxide with other materials (Cu2O with ZnO, CuO with ZnO, and CuO with Si), as well as the effect of the thickness of the copper (i) oxide and copper (ii) oxide on the solar cell performance. Finally, we present aspects to improve the conversion efficiency of heterojunction solar cells with copper oxides combined with TiO2. This review will be useful for the construction and further development of thin-film solar cells.
- PozycjaCharacteristicsofTiO2,Cu2O,andTiO2/Cu2Othin ﬁlmsforapplicationinPVdevice(AIP Advance, 2019) Sawicka-Chudy, Paulina; Maciej, Sibiński; Ryszard, Pawełek; Grzegorz, Wisz; Bogumił, Cieniek; Piotr, Potera; Patryk, Szczepan; Stanisław, Adamiak; Marian, Cholewa; Łukasz, GłowaSeveral Cu2O and TiO2 thin films and four additional TiO2/Cu2O structures were fabricated by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The process parameters were selected on the basis of earlier studies and numerical simulations. We examined the morphology of a cross-section of the PV structures, roughness and topography, and the transmission spectra of the thin films. Additionally, the properties of the samples were determined by X-ray diffraction. Next, the morphology cross-sectional and layer compositions of the solar cells was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Only one of the TiO2/Cu2O structures appeared smooth and homogeneous with columnar-type growth. For the as-grown films, diffraction peaks were observed and identified as brookite, rutile, CuO, and Cu2O and the average roughness of the samples was 0.5, 1.2, 5.4, and 4.0 nm, respectively. Finally, the transmission spectra of the thin films were recorded. Transmission and reflection spectra of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were analyzed, and the optical band gap and absorption coefficient of the oxidized layers were calculated. In the region of 400 to 1000 nm, transmittance varied from 5% to 70% in the TiO2 samples, and from 15% to 40% in the Cu2O samples, and reflectance of the TiO2 and Cu2O samples ranged from 20% to 90%. In the region of 1.5 eV to 3.5 eV, the mean absorption coefficient varied from ∼105 1/cm to ∼3 · 105 1/cm for TiO2 thin film, and from ∼2 · 105 to ∼6 · 105 1/cm for Cu2O thin film. The optical band gap values of the samples shifted slightly toward bulk anatase-3.5 eV, bulk rutile-3.1 eV, and copper(I) oxide. Finally, silver contacts were used for the electrodes. One of the fabricated TiO2/Cu2O PV structures was found to be sensitive to electromagnetic radiance during the experiment.
- PozycjaComparison of Solar Tracking System Solar Tracking System and Fixed Photovoltaic Modules in Lodz(Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 2018-01) Sawicka-Chudy, Paulina; Sibiński, Maciej; Cholewa, Marian; Pawełek, RyszardThe world energy consumption has exhibited high growth over the last several decades. Alternative energy sources like photovoltaic (PV) systems generate electricity, reduce pollution air, and have little environmental impact. The commonly used fixed-tilt solar panels, however, have low efficiency and high production cost. Thus, it takes a long time to obtain a return on the investment. Solar trackers increase the efficiency of PV systems and are therefore more attractive from a financial point of view. In order to design tracking systems that will be efficient, it is necessary to analyze the results during various periods during the year and over their lifespan. Thus, we performed a comparative study between fixed-tilt panels and the tracking system installed in Lodz, Poland. Fixed-tilt panels are at normal to the Earth's surface (90 deg from horizontal plane) and are attached to a building façade, azimuth 180 deg (S direction) with 15 cm ventilation gap so slight efficiency drop may be presumed. We performed short- and long-term analyses of the solar tracking and fixed-tilt systems, which allowed us to conclude that the panels tracking the sun had an additional gain of energy during the year as compared to the fixed-tilt panels. During some months, however, the solar tracking system did not produce as much energy as the fixed-tilt, vertically positioned panels. These results might be useful in designing and constructing solar tracking PV systems.
- PozycjaRzeszów-Eger Resolution on traditional rural landscapes of the Carpathian region(University of Rzeszów - Cetre Ecol. Res. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2017-10) Bobiec, Andrzej; Mázsa, KatalinThe Resolution identifies traditional rural landscapes of the Carpathian region as the most precious bio-cultural legacy of the long-lasting adaptive relationship between rural communities and the surrounding nature. Globalization, agricultural intensification, and specialization, as well as the progressing urbanization of the countryside, increasingly lead to societies' detachment from their original, rural, identity. Grant-based initiatives cannot prevent the ultimate loss of traditional landscapes. Their preservation requires new policies allowing and encouraging the rural communities to develop their economies in harmony of their traditions and in accordance with natural knowledge, complemented with state-of-the-art scientific and technological assets. Only such an approach, based on local economies, could perpetuate large blocks of working high nature and cultural values landscapes.
- PozycjaGrowing Plants on Vermicompost as a Way to Produce High Quality Foods(Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences Biological Sciences, 2000) Kostecka, Joanna; Błażej, JaninaFertiliser application plays an important role for quantity of crops. Consideration of soli degradation as an effect of over-fertiliser application is also important. A large concentration of mineral nitrogen and potassium in soil disturbs biological relationship between soil, plants and human health. In many fruits and vegetables the nitrate and heavy metals contents exceed their permissible levels. It is possoble to prevent this by replacing mineral fertilisers with vermicompost. There are some evidences that vermicompost can promote the growth of plants [1,2,7,8].