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- PozycjaOficjałowie Konsystorza Okręgowego w Piotrkowie [Trybunalskim](2015-09-14) Wlaźlak, Władysław PiotrThe District Consistory in Piotrków [Trybunalski], functioning from 1819 to 1918 on the territory of the Diocese of Kalisz, i.e. of Włocławek was featured by substantial fluctuation concerning its territory and personnel. Moreover, the powers of the two first Officials in relation to appointing the personnel of the Consistory were greater than in the following years. After reorganization of ecclesiastical courts in 1885 on the territory of the Diocese of Kujawy and Kalisz, Presidents headed the Piotrków Consistory. In that time, many matrimonial causes were decided directly by the Official in Włocławek who had powers for the whole diocese. Earlier the Piotrków Consistory was subordinated to the General Official in Kalisz. Analogous changes were to the seat of the Consistory Office. The first Official resided in the centre of the district subordinated to him, yet it was not the seat of the official’s office. The situation became more complicated during the office of his follower who resided outside the territory of the Official’s Office of Piotrków. The next heads of the Consistory ran their office in Piotrków [Trybunalski] where they were parish priests. The last President was an exception who administered matters of the Piotrków Consistory from Sulejów nearby where he was the parish priest of the local parish. Maybe it was connected with the fact that at that time his consistory rights became reduced.
- PozycjaZ badań nad realizacją obowiązku społecznego oszczędzania przez uczestników funduszu B – rolnictwa Społecznego Funduszu Oszczędnościowego w latach 1948–1950(2015-09-14) Witkowski, AndrzejIn 1948, an obligation of social saving was established, and it also covered some land taxpayers. Financial means from execution of this obligation were saved by them on the B (agriculture) fund of the Social Saving Fund (Społeczny Fundusz Oszczędnościowy). An analysis of the construction and the burden size for the participants in the SSF B fund, as well as its subsequent fates allow to qualify it among tools of tax character, created for implementation of policy concerning transformation of the proprietary structure of farms towards limiting the number of medium and larger individual farms and increasing the number of collective forms of agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to turn attention, first of all, to various problems and difficulties connected with execution of this obligation from participants in the SSF B fund by the tax authorities (managements of communes) that acted in this respect under supervision of (appointed in 1947) plenipotentiaries of the Government in charge of land tax (they finished their activity in mid-1950).
- PozycjaGeneza i działalność Światowej Organizacji Handlu (WTO) na arenie międzynarodowej(2015-09-14) Stępień-Załucka, BeataThe World Trade Organization was created as one of the final effects of GATT on 15 Apr. 1994. At present, it has 151 members. The membership is primarily conditioned by economic conditions, which results from the fact that WTO can be undoubtedly recognized as one of leadingorganizations affecting the world economy and trade. Its peculiarity and exceptional character are expressed not only by diversity of members, as it groups both developed and developing countries, but also through a range of outstanding economic achievements. The main goal of WTO activity is undertaking actions that would fruit on the international forum with enhancement of life standards, provision of full employment, increase in real incomes, effective demand, and development of manufacturing and trade of goods and services with optimal use of world resources, with maintenance of environment, and considering its protection.
- PozycjaMatrimonium gaudet favore iuris. Komentarz do kan. 1060 KPK(2015-09-14) Steczkowski, PiotrThe purpose of the article is to explain the essence of the binding principle of the canon matrimonial law that says that canon matrimony enjoys favour of law. The paper presents essential stages in shaping the canon doctrine on this subject, starting from the rule of Pope Innocent III. Then, in a more detailed way, the norm of the canon law code of 1917 was shown, as well as the discussion that was on this principle, with participation of canonists and theologians, during the reform after the Second Vatican Council. In this context, the Author has highlighted the present stand of the ecclesiastical legislator who directs favour of law to the institution of marriage and not to protection of a church member’s freedom. This solution is grounded not only on fundamental moral and legal rules, but responds to the very nature of marriage, which is one of “social sacraments” instituted and aimed at salvation of other people, as this is reminded by the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Thanks to that, the principle of law favour for marriage does not cause any conflicts between good of an individual and the common good. Quite on the contrary, it serves as a tool to form certainty of a faithful person’s conscience, and eliminates possible conflicts between the general legal norm and the conscience assessment.