Nierówności społeczne a wzrost gospodarczy z. 63(3)/2020


Ostatnio nadesłane materiały

Aktualnie wyświetlane 1 - 5 z 17
  • Pozycja
    Inclusive development. How is Poland doing in comparison to other OECD countries?
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Szymańska, Anita; Zielenkiewicz, Małgorzata
    Inclusive development is a multifaceted conception, which makes it difficult to measure. Recent years, however, have brought some proposals for measuring this phenomenon, which opens up new opportunities to deepen the knowledge of how countries are doing in making their economic and social progress more inclusive. The aim of the paper is to examine the level of advancement of inclusive development in Poland in comparison to other OECD countries. The main hypothesis states that the development in Poland is less inclusive than the OECD average. The research covers data from 30 countries (OECD members, excluding the countries where such data were unavailable), and is based on the OECD’s proposal of measurement. The study was conducted with the use of data normalisation into unified indices, taxonomic methods (cluster analysis based on the Ward hierarchic method), and comparative analysis. The results indicate areas of improvement for Poland. These are issues connected with the functioning of the labour market (the level of labour productivity, employment ratio, earnings dispersion), access to loans for starting or expanding businesses, but also life expectancy, wealth distribution, early childhood education and care, and, most of all, characteristics related to the area of governance, such as trust in the government, and voter turnout.
  • Pozycja
    The allocation of participatory budgeting funds within the context of population ageing and social inequalities
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Wetoszka, Piotr
    In Brazil in the late 1980s, participatory budgeting was introduced to help develop deprived neighbourhoods. Modern European cities must face environmental and social threats that cause intra-urban inequalities to grow, especially with respect to the elderly. Local governments are urged to reformulate their policy agendas to withstand these trends. Is participatory budgeting not becoming a threat to tackling these issues rather than a solution as it originally was? To address this question, the intra-urban concentration of funds must be investigated. Do neighbourhoods with a higher share of the elderly – less politically active yet emotionally bound to their surroundings – tend to get less funding, as the theory of elite capture could suggest? While this question has been discussed in literature, neither the intra-urban age composition nor the specificity of Polish participatory budgets was considered. The overall goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between the age structure of neighbourhoods in Wrocław and their performance in participatory budgeting editions run between 2016–2017. By means of clustering and multiple correspondence analysis, a typical “winner” of the two editions can be determined. It is a neighbourhood incorporated into the city at later stages of suburbanisation, with single-family housing and an above-average share of residents aged 25–44. The analysis performed does not reveal any similar connections for other types of neighbourhoods, including those with above-average shares of the elderly. It is safe to argue that territorial city expansion and age-related inter-city differences cannot be seen independently of each other.
  • Pozycja
    Regional household poverty and mobility analysis – a transition probability approach
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Mowczan, Damian
    The main objective of this paper was to estimate and analyse transition-probability matrices for all 16 of Poland’s NUTS-2 level regions (voivodeship level). The analysis is conducted in terms of the transitions among six expenditure classes (per capita and per equivalent unit), focusing on poverty classes. The period of analysis was two years: 2015 and 2016. The basic aim was to identify both those regions in which the probability of staying in poverty was the highest and the general level of mobility among expenditure classes. The study uses a two-year panel sub-sample of unidentified unit data from the Central Statistical Office (CSO), specifically the data concerning household budget surveys. To account for differences in household size and demographic structure, the study used expenditures per capita and expenditures per equivalent unit simultaneously. To estimate the elements of the transition matrices, a classic maximum-likelihood estimator was used. The analysis used Shorrocks’ and Bartholomew’s mobility indices to assess the general mobility level and the Gini index to assess the inequality level. The results show that the one-year probability of staying in the same poverty class varies among regions and is lower for expenditures per equivalent units. The highest probabilities were identified in Podkarpackie (expenditures per capita) and Opolskie (expenditures per equivalent unit), and the lowest probabilities in Kujawsko-Pomorskie (expenditures per capita) and Małopolskie (expenditures per equivalent unit). The highest level of general mobility was noted in Małopolskie, for both categories of expenditures.
  • Pozycja
    Knowledge spillovers and innovation: analysis of the relationships between service centres and MSMEs from the regional perspective
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Klimek, Jordan; Łobacz, Katarzyna
    The innovativeness of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) is dependent on accessibility to appropriate knowledge resources that enable creation of new market offers. Due to inherent limitations related to the possibilities of investing in the acquisition or creation of new knowledge, smaller entities may benefit from the proximity of large companies, especially multinational corporations, which are actively involved in new knowledge creation, and this knowledge has the ability to spill over. The flow of knowledge from service centres to local smaller companies has the potential to stimulate innovativeness in regional service functions, creating opportunities for paper is to analyse the impact of the flow of knowledge from service centres to MSMEs as a result of interactions between them. For this purpose, empirical data from quantitative research carried out by the research team in 2016 on a representative sample of 1,100 micro small and medium-sized enterprises in the Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania) voivodeship were used. The analysis shows that service centres can have a positive impact on the innovativeness of companies in the regions in which they are located, provided that there is a flow of knowledge as a result of direct transfer or personal interactions.
  • Pozycja
    Efficiency of the research and development activities of technical universities in Poland
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2020) Łącka, Irena; Brzezicki, Łukasz
    In the 21st century knowledge-based economy, long-term economic growth and development depend on the ability to use the knowledge and technology so as to create product, process, organisational, marketing and even social innovations. The knowledge and technology, human resources and social capital (facilitating the transfer of technology from the world of science to the economy), comprise the most important production factors today. Research and development (R&D) activities are among the diverse determinants affecting the economy’s ability to innovate. They are carried out by public technical universities. One of the tasks that these entities face is to conduct basic, industrial (applied) research and development works. Their results can then be transferred to industrial and service enterprises as novel solutions. Research and development activities of universities are financed mainly from public sources, which suggests the need to assess the efficiency of this task. This can be done with the use of various methods, e.g. the non-parametric DEA method. The purpose of the paper is to measure the efficiency of research and development activities of public technical universities in Poland with the aid of the DEA method. The fourteen universities which in the years 2015–2017 reported to the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MNiSW) were included in the study. The efficiency of the universities in filing new patent solutions and being granted patents was analysed. The results acquired indicate very low and low efficiency of most Polish technical universities. This is due both to a small number of patent applications and a small number of patents granted. In the examined period, the group of most efficient technical universities in both aspects comprised 4 to 5 universities.