Association between hearing organ and renal function in young adult type 1 diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study.
Background: Type 1 diabetes can lead to impaired function of many organs and tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between hearing and kidney function in young adult type 1 diabetic patients. Methods: 31 patients (9 women) with type 1 diabetes, aged <45, with disease duration <10 years were included. Blood and urine samples for laboratory tests and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) assessment were obtained. eGFR was calculated with CKD-EPI formula. In all patients pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses were evaluated, also eye fundus was examined. Results: Mean patients’ age was 29.5±7.0 years and disease duration 4.6±2.6 years. All patients had eGFR >60.0 ml/min/1.73 m2. In one case microalbuminuria and in 3 patients early retinopathy were revealed. Linear correlation between eGFR and hearing threshold at 4, 6, 8 and 12 kHz was found. Patients with hearing impairment (n=7) had lower eGFR 108.8 vs. 121.7 ml/min/1.73 m2, p=0.047 compared to normal-hearing subjects. Also patients with absence of otoacoustic emissions in at least one ear had lower eGFR, 103.1 vs. 123.3 ml/min/1.73 m2, p<0.001, compared to the remaining group. In auditory brainstem responses we found significant linear correlation between eGFR and wave III and interval I-III latencies, and between UAE and waves III, V and interval I-III latencies. Conclusions: This study indicate possible relationship between hearing and kidney function in type 1 diabetic patients. Pathways directly linking hearing and renal function are unknown. Larger studies are necessary to further analyze these relationships.
Type 1 diabetes , Hearing impairment , Pure-tone audiometry , Otoacoustic emissions , Auditory brainstem responses , Glomerular filtration rate , Albuminuria