Polityka i Społeczeństwo nr 3(14)/2016
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- PozycjaAssistant or employee – unregulated case of a deputy’s co-workers in Poland(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Lipold, PatrycjaPoseł pobiera wynagrodzenie, dietę poselską oraz pieniądze na funkcjonowanie biura poselskiego. W celu obsługi swojej działalności w terenie oraz na forum parlamentu posłowie tworzą biura poselskie, w których pracują ich współpracownicy. Art. 23 ustawy z dnia 9 maja 1996 r. o wykonywaniu mandatu posła i senatora (DzU 2003, nr 221, poz. 2199 z późn. zm.) głosi w punkcie 4, że poseł lub senator może zatrudniać pracowników w swoich biurach poselskich na czas określony, nie dłuższy niż czas trwania kadencji, na którą został wybrany. Ten sam punkt mówi także, że działalność posła lub senatora może być wspierana przez społecznych współpracowników. Działalność asystenta społecznego wynika w dużej mierze z uzgodnienia zawartego pomiędzy nim a posłem. Każdy element poczynań asystenta podlega uzgodnieniom między stronami, podobnie jak gratyfikacja finansowa, otrzymywana za wykonywanie przez niego zadań. Jednym z podstawowych czynników rządzących tym stosunkiem jest pełna swoboda zarówno co do formy umowy, okresu jej obowiązywania, zakresu obowiązków oraz sposobu rozwiązania. Jest więc zasadnicza różnica pomiędzy pracą pracownika biura poselskiego a asystenta społecznego.
- PozycjaDemograficzne starzenie się populacji jako wyzwanie dla samorządu gminnego – doświadczenia gmin województwa pomorskiego(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Richert-Kaźmierska, AnitaPopulation aging is a natural social process. Nevertheless the increase in the population of the elderly (including those of an advanced age – above 85 years old) in the last decade in Poland is unusually high. The rapid increase in the number of older people and their percentage in the total population is associated with specific social and economic consequences. These have to be faced both by the central government as well as local authorities. In the article author concentrated on the question of the knowledge of local authorities about demographic changes and perceptions of their consequences. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge of local government representatives on the ageing of the local community and the interpretation of changes caused by this process. In addition, the author has identified the measures that local governments have declared to undertake to increase awareness of aging and its consequences. In the article the results of a survey conducted in July 2015 in 77 of the 119 non-metropolitan municipalities of Pomeranian province has been used.
- PozycjaGovernance jako podejście teoretyczne – kilka kwestii spornych(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Pawłowska, AgnieszkaGovernance is a popular theoretical approach in the social sciences. However, it involves a number of definitional and theoretical problems. The issue of the ambiguity of the concept and the numerous attempts to recognize the complexity of reality in its framework is subject to criticism. A categorization of numerous definitions of governance is proposed. The weaknesses of the governance approach as a theoretical framework in the social sciences are indicated: the inability to clearly indicate a causal entity in decision-making networks, wrongful diminution of the role of state agencies, its strong normative dimension. In the conclusions it is stated that governance is an attempt, albeit not very successful, but one and only at a holistic description of the hyperpluralist environment of public actors. The weakness of governance approach can be overcome by subjecting the phenomena to micro- or meso-level analysis.
- PozycjaJednostki samorządu terytorialnego – podmioty wewnętrzne czy zewnętrzne polityk publicznych?(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Jęczarek, MateuszThis article presents, on the basis of the classification of actors of public policy presented by Suwaj and Wenclik, local government entities involved in the implementation of public policies. Through examples of the functioning in practice, the image of the participants in local government is shown as “those that directly affect the shape of the (national) public policy, are directly involved in its creation”, a fact which results from belonging to the category of public administration. In turn, the remainder of the image is presented as local government entities “who are not directly involved in making decisions about the shape of public policy, although their opinions may be important in its shaping”. Such a view leads to the perception of municipalities, counties and provinces as entities “suspended” between the central authorities and the specific interests determined by local communities and the broadly understood local government sector.
- PozycjaMiędzynarodowa konferencja naukowa „Wyzwania polityki bezpieczeństwa: historia i współczesność”, Lwów 16–18 czerwca 2016 roku(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Malczyńska-Biały, Mira
- PozycjaNa drodze do publicznej służby zdrowia. Meandry polityki zdrowotnej Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Grata, PawełIn the Second Republic of Poland health protection was insufficiently developed. There were very few doctors, nurses and hospitals. Only people who were insured or the wealthy had access to medical treatment. The majority of citizens, especially rural residents, could not use health care. The health policy of the state was passive for many years. Changes appeared only in the mid-thirties. The aim of health policy was a public health service for all citizens. The authorities declared their support for this idea on a number of occasions and the parliament accepted the law of public health in June 1939. It was the basis for the construction of common access to healthcare in Poland. To achieve this aim, health centres were built and the compulsory medical practice for the doctors was introduced in villages. The beginning of the Second World War prevented the enforcement of this Act. However, the attempt to create a public health service made in the Second Republic of Poland was a proof of progress which has been made in state health policy.
- Pozycja„Network governance” w fińskim samorządzie terytorialnym: naturalny stan rzeczy czy wyzwanie dla lokalnej demokracji?(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Radzik-Maruszak, KatarzynaThe main aim of the article is to present the practice of network governance concept in Finnish local government and its impact on local democracy, including the role played by elected representatives. The main hypothesis of the study implies that the idea of network governing, not only forces municipal councils to redefine their roles, but also reduces the scope of their responsibilities and limits the level of accountability. The study is based on empirical research conducted in 22 municipalities located in Pirkanmaa Region, Southern Finland in Spring 2015. The results of the research indicate that although network governance easily fits into Finnish local government, the concept brings many challenges. One of the most important challenges is the necessity to strengthen the say of elected representatives, presently perceived with regard to governing process mainly as rubber-stamp councils.
- PozycjaOrientacja rynkowa w dobrym współrządzeniu miastem w perspektywie urzędników samorządowych(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Anders-Morawska, JustynaThe scope of the paper is to analyse the model of public governance by the application of the concept of market orientation. The author posits a new approach in resolving the problem of the assessment and evaluation of territorial government practices in the area of urban governance. The research was carried out in 8 large Polish cities and concentrated on the processes with regards to the improvement of the attractiveness of the city for external users such as: investors, tourists and potential students. The competitive nature of these processes as well as the necessity to take concerted actions with non-governmental and private partners set boundaries for a simultaneous analysis of market orientation on the one hand and collaborative governance on the other. The process of data collection comprised content analysis, in-depth interviews, an on-line survey and the mystery client method. Based on information acquired during research process the author assumes local administration to follow a middle path between two models of public management: new public management and new public governance with the aforementioned in the ascendency. The components of market orientation were visible in managerial practices of the cities concerned: public managers acknowledge the necessity to acquire intelligence with regard to users’ needs, undertake activities in order to coordinate efforts in the area of satisfying these needs, and attempts to monitor the results of these actions.
- Pozycja„Polityka migracyjna w kontekście lokalnym na przykładzie województwa podkarpackiego”, pod redakcją Anny Gąsior-Niemiec i Sylwii Pelc, ISBN 978-83-60507-18-6, Wyższa Szkoła Inżynieryjno-Ekonomiczna w Rzeszowie, Rzeszów 2015, 206 ss.(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Grabowska, Sabina
- PozycjaPolityka w zakresie podatków samorządowych w latach 1991–2016(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Miszczuk, MagdalenaThe establishment of local governments in 1990 was accompanied by a separation of taxes for municipalities from public revenues. Local taxes are fiscally inefficient due to their specific construction, which triggers a question whether state tax policy does not marginalise them. The article refers to the introduced changes, as well as to the consequences of a chosen tax structure. In order to answer the aforementioned question, an analysis of regulations devoted to reforms in the system of local taxation, and of the extensive data of figures for years 1991–2016 has been conducted. The research does not unambiguously confirm the thesis that the state policy marginalises local taxes.
- PozycjaSamorząd gospodarczy a system decentralizacji administracji publicznej w Polsce(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Kmieciak, RobertIn studies of decentralization processes little is spoken of economic self-government, the role of which is to advocate the interests of the social environment of entrepreneurs. Since the beginning of the political transition in Poland an unproductive discussion has been ongoing concerning the place of economic self-government in the system of local government. Current legal regulations do not provide business chambers with the status of public legal unions. They tend to be based on the facultative nature of ties between entrepreneurs, which is the main cause of the weakness of Polish economic self-government, or rather the economic quasi-self-government. Undoubtedly, the lack of such structures in the sphere of public institutions is the main reason for their marginalization by the government and local authorities, which do not see the need to make any concessions for the distracted economic environment. Given this context, the most rational solution seems to be the creation of universal economic self-government, which will be incorporated in the system of public institutions.
- PozycjaSprawozdanie z I międzynarodowej e-konferencji naukowej „Oblicza współczesnego terroryzmu / faces of modern terrorism”, Katowice 14–18 grudnia 2015 roku(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Kobis, Rafał
- PozycjaSystem ochrony zdrowia w Szwajcarii – doświadczenia i rekomendacje dla Polski(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Figura, JoannaThe article pertains to the subject of health policy. The paper examines in detail one of the best health systems in the world, which operates in Switzerland. The aim of the article is a detailed presentation of the functioning of the health system in Switzerland, according to selected criteria. The article was developed based on the study of literature (both national and international positions). The health model adopted and implemented in Switzerland has its advantages and disadvantages. The success of the health system in Switzerland is determined by, among other factors, the operation of many competing companies offering health insurance, broad and at the same time socially acceptable patient co-payment and the development of large-scale private health insurance and high "saturation" of medical personnel within the health system. Concrete proposals to improve the situation in the Polish health care system were indicated, based on the rich experience of the Swiss health system. The solutions adopted in the Swiss health care system should provide inspiration for all decision-makers in Poland.
- PozycjaTurystyka jako przedmiot planowania strategicznego administracji publicznej(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Miszczuk, AndrzejThe aim of the article is to illustrate the specificity of the new paradigm for the development of tourism as well as the evaluation – in its framework – of the selected strategic documents concerning two underdeveloped Voivodeships of Eastern Poland, i.e. the Lublin and Subcarpathian Voivodeships. The choice of those two Voivodeships was intentional, since they are both characterised by interesting natural and cultural values, however, tourism is not a significant stimulus for development and competitiveness enhancement within either the national and international dimension. From the analysis of the selected strategic documents one may conclude that strategic planning of a new approach towards development of tourism is becoming more widespread, though its possible innovative nature is barely noticeable.
- PozycjaWizja Unii Europejskiej w koncepcjach Prawa i Sprawiedliwości w świetle teorii międzyrządowych i ponadnarodowych(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, 2016) Staszczyk, ArturThe paper explores the issue of the application of selected theories of European integration (intergovernmental and supranational) to explain the position of the Polish Justice Law and Justice party with regard to the functioning and future of the EU. The party, led by Jaroslaw Kaczynski, is a political formation which is actively engaged in the debate on the shape of the EU, pertaining to both its theoretical and practical policies. The ongoing debate has taken the form of battle between neo-functionalism and state-centric intergovernmental approach. The author believes that the main theory that explains the Law and Justice party’s approach to European issues is inter-governmentalism which aligns well with the concept of “Europe of Motherlands” adopted by the party. It proclaims the primacy of nation state and its interests in the process of European integration. This is tantamount to refuting the view that the EU can develop only in accordance with the neo-functionalism’s spill-over logic which will eventually lead to the formation of a European federation.