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- PozycjaThe 3A Band System in the Spectrum of the 13C16O Molecule.(Academic Press (Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy), 1999) Hakalla, Rafał; Kępa, Ryszard; Rytel, Marek; Zachwieja, Mirosław
Pokaż więcej In the emission spectrum of the carbon monoxide 13C16O isotopic molecule three bands comprising about 1820 lines of the 3A band system (c3Π-a3Π) were recorded and analyzed. The 0-0 and 0-1 bands of this system were photographed for the first time and the 0-2 band was rephotographed by using methods of conventional high-resolution spectroscopy. The result of the rotational band analysis includes expanding of the spectrum interpretation up to J = 25 as well as the identification of four previously unobserved branches P13, R13, P31, and R31. Because of strong perturbations in the c3Π (ν = 0) state, the calculation of the rovibronic structure constants was performed only for the lower a3Π state. By using a calculation based on a nonlinear least-squares method, an effective Hamiltonian of Brown [J. M. Brown, E. A. Colbourn, J. K. G. Watson, and F. D. Wayne, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 74, 294-318 (1979)] and a separative procedure proposed by Curl-Dane-Watson [R. F. Curl and C. B. Dane, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 406-412 (1988); J. K. G. Watson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 302-308 (1989)], it was possible to derive the rotational structure constants for the ν = 0, 1, and 2 levels for the a3Π state in the 13C16O isotopic molecule. Term values for the C3Π (ν = 0) level and the equilibrium molecular constants for the a3Π state also are reported. © 1999 Academic Press.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaPomiar dydaktyczny z fizyki. Podstawy diagnostyki edukacyjnej. Materiały dla nauczycieli fizyki i studentów kierunków nauczycielskich(1999) Klisowska, Małgorzata
Pokaż więcej Materiały dydaktyczne wprowadzające do zagadnień organizacji systemu sprawdzania i oceniania. Dostosowane do potrzeb praktycznych nauczyciela fizyki. Zawierają ogólną charakterystykę procesów: - kontroli osiagnieć dydaktycznych; - nauczania fizyki wraz z modelem tresci kształcenia; pomiaru dydaktycznego i jego konstrukcji.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaGrowing Plants on Vermicompost as a Way to Produce High Quality Foods(Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences Biological Sciences, 2000) Kostecka, Joanna; Błażej, Janina
Pokaż więcej Fertiliser application plays an important role for quantity of crops. Consideration of soli degradation as an effect of over-fertiliser application is also important. A large concentration of mineral nitrogen and potassium in soil disturbs biological relationship between soil, plants and human health. In many fruits and vegetables the nitrate and heavy metals contents exceed their permissible levels. It is possoble to prevent this by replacing mineral fertilisers with vermicompost. There are some evidences that vermicompost can promote the growth of plants [1,2,7,8].Pokaż więcej - PozycjaAnalysis of the 1– v’’ Progression of the 3A Band System (c3Pi - a3Pi) in the 13C16O Molecule Spectrum(2000 Academic Press (Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy), 2000-09-06) Hakalla, Rafał
Pokaż więcej The 1-0, 1-1, and 1-2 bands of the 3A system of 13CO (c3Π-a3Π) have been recorded for the first time, in the form of discharge emission spectra photographed at high resolution. Preliminary rotational analysis suggests that the v = 1 level of the c3Π state is perturbed in a fashion similar to the v = 0 level, previously observed by Dabrowski et al. (1987. I. Dabrowski, M. Vervolet, and D. C. Wang, Can. J. Phys. 65, 1171-1177). Rotational combination differences from the 1720 measured lines have been used to obtain rotational constants for the v = 0-2 levels of the a3Π state, using the Hamiltonian of Brown et al. (1979. J. M. Brown, E. A. Calbourn, J. K. G. Watson, and F. D. Wayne, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 74, 294-318). and the least squares formalism of Curl and Dane (1988. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 406-412), as modified by Watson (1989. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 302-308). Term values for the c3Π, v = 1 level have then been obtained from the line frequencies, and a set of effective rotational constants for the c3Π (v = 1) level of 13CO has been derived. © 2000 Academic Press.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaAnalysis of the c3 (v = 0, 1) State on the Basis of the 3A Band System in the 12C16O, 13C16O, and 14C16O Molecules.(Academic Press (Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy), 2001) Hakalla, Rafał
Pokaż więcej Six bands of the 3A system (c 3Π-a 3Π) in the CO molecule have been photographed as an emission spectra by the Geissler tube. The conventional technique of spectroscopy has been implemented. It was the first attempt to analyze the 1-3 band in the 13C16O molecule as well as the 1-2 band in the 12C16O molecule at high resolution. The Th lines were used as a standard along with the interferometric comparator equipped with a photoelectric scanning device. The 0-2 and 0-3 bands in 12C16O and the 0-3 band in 13C16O and 14C16O were reanalyzed. The total number of lines studied within the framework of this project amounts to 3071. Due to complicated and not totally described perturbations which appeared in the upper state c 3Π(v = 0, 1), the effective rovibronic structure constants for this state were calculated (for the first time in the case of v = 1 level in the 12C16O). Global merging of the rotational constants of the a 3Π(v = 0, 1, 2, 3) and c 3Π(v = 0, 1) levels in 13C16O, as well as a 3Π(v = 2, 3) and c 3Π(v = 0, 1) in 12C16O, made it possible to obtain c 3Π vibrational differences Δv1-0 = 1742.0944 (22) cm-1 in 13C16O as well as 1775.7665 (41) cm-1 in 12C16O for the first time. The so far unknown band origins of the 0-v″ and 1-v″ progressions of the 3A system in the molecules under consideration have also been determined. The first attempt to specify the equilibrium molecular constants for the c 3Π state, along with the new values for the a 3Π state, on the basis of the obtained values of merged rovibronic constants has been undertaken. The vibrational constants of the c 3Π state in the 13C16O molecule as well as in the 12C16O molecule were thus obtained for the first time. The 1-2 band of 12C16O and Dunham's isotopic relationship were implemented for that purpose. The analysis of anomalously small values of the centrifugal distortion constant D of the c 3Π state and the global character of perturbations in the observed isotopes of the CO molecule suggest homogeneous interaction between c 3Π(v = 0, 1) and the k 3Π state. Simultaneously, the analysis of the comparatively large values of the Λ-doubling parameter q and the analysis of the shifts of the term values caused by perturbations presuppose a significant influence of a heterogeneous nature of any of the 3Σ states (most probably the j 3Σ+ state) on the c 3Π(v = 0, 1) state. The article also presents the first attempt to calculate RKR potentials, r-centroids, and Franck-Condon factors for the 3A system. © 2001 Academic Press.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaAnalysis of the c3Pi (v = 0, 1) State on the Basis of the 3A Band System in the 12C16O, 13C16O, and 14C16O Molecules(2000 Academic Press (Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy), 2001) Hakalla, Rafał
Pokaż więcej The 1-0, 1-1, and 1-2 bands of the 3A system of 13CO (c3Π-a3Π) have been recorded for the first time, in the form of discharge emission spectra photographed at high resolution. Preliminary rotational analysis suggests that the v = 1 level of the c3Π state is perturbed in a fashion similar to the v = 0 level, previously observed by Dabrowski et al. (1987. I. Dabrowski, M. Vervolet, and D. C. Wang, Can. J. Phys. 65, 1171-1177). Rotational combination differences from the 1720 measured lines have been used to obtain rotational constants for the v = 0-2 levels of the a3Π state, using the Hamiltonian of Brown et al. (1979. J. M. Brown, E. A. Calbourn, J. K. G. Watson, and F. D. Wayne, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 74, 294-318). and the least squares formalism of Curl and Dane (1988. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 406-412), as modified by Watson (1989. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 302-308). Term values for the c3Π, v = 1 level have then been obtained from the line frequencies, and a set of effective rotational constants for the c3Π (v = 1) level of 13CO has been derived. © 2000 Academic Press.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaAntiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant systems in modified mean field theory(2003) Górski, Grzegorz; Mizia, Jerzy; Kucab, Krzysztof
Pokaż więcej - PozycjaMagnetic ordering of itinerant systems in modified mean field theory: antiferromagnetism(2003) Górski, Grzegorz; Mizia, Jerzy; Kucab, Krzysztof
Pokaż więcej - PozycjaMagnetic Ordering of Itinerant Systems in Modified CPA approximation(2003) Górski, Grzegorz; Mizia, Jerzy; Kucab, Krzysztof
Pokaż więcej - PozycjaInterband pairing in extended two- and three-band Hubbard model(2004) Górski, Grzegorz; Mizia, Jerzy; Kucab, Krzysztof
Pokaż więcej - PozycjaCorrelation Effects in Band Ferromagnetism(cond-mat, 2004) Górski, Grzegorz; Mizia, Jerzy
Pokaż więcej We analyze the influence of different on-site and inter-site interactions on the Curie temperature of transition metal magnetic elements. The numerical calculations show the well known result that the on-site Coulomb repulsion helps ferromagnetism mainly at half-filling of the band, where the 3d elements are antiferromagnetic (Cr, Mn). The inter-site interactions, which in the new approximation decrease the width of the band, favor ferromagnetism at both ends of the band. At the same time they lower the ferromagnetic Curie temperature towards experimental values, removing the paradox which persisted for a long time.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaNew analysis of the Douglas – Herzberg system (A1П – X1Σ+) in the CH+ ion radical.(EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag (The European Physical Journal D ), 2006-03-21) Hakalla, Rafał; Kępa, Ryszard; Szajna, Wojciech; Zachwieja, Mirosław
Pokaż więcej Three bands of the A1 ∏ -X1 σ+ system in the 12CH+ ion radical have been rephotographed under high resolution as an emission spectra using a Geissler-type discharge tube. The conventional technique of spectroscopy has been implemented. Using the Th lines as a standards, as well as an interferometric comparator equipped with a photoelectric scanning device, the 0-0, 0-1 and 2-1 bands have been reanalyzed. By means of much longer bands (Jmax = 17 in the Q(J) branch of the 0-0 band; Jmax = 16 in the R(J) branch of the 0-1 band; Jmax = 14 in the P(J) and Q(J) branches of the 2-1 band), than have been observed so far, as well as the merged calculations, using another five bands given by Carrington et al. [A. Carrington, D.A. Ramsay, Phys. Scripta 25, 272 (1982)] additionally, more accurate molecular constants for the X 1 σ+ state, the improved reduced band system origin Te = 24118.726 (14) cm-1 as well as for the first time the equilibrium molecular constants with their one standard deviation for the A1 ∏ state in the CH+ molecule have been computed: ωe′ = 1864.402(22), ωex e′ = 115.832(14), ωeye′ = 2.6301(24), Be′ = 11.88677(72), αe′e = 0.9163(18), γe′ = -2.29(12) × 10-2, εe′ = 4.95(20) × 10-3, D e′ = 1.92960(31) × 10-3, β e′= 1.0733(50) × 10-4, δ e′ = -1.312(16) × 10-5, qe′= 4.102(23) × 10-2, αqe′ = -3.14(16) × 10-3, and qDe′= -2.20(14) × 10 -5 cm-1. Only in our research the addition to the zero-point energy Y00′ = -1.9430 cm-1 and Y 00″ = 1.8953 cm-1 have been calculated. The equilibrium bond lengths of re′ = 1.235053(37) Å and re″ = 1.1308843(30) Å for the A1∏ and X1σ+ states, respectively have been computed. Full quantum-mechanics characteristic of the A-X bands system in the 12CH+ molecule, i.e. RKR turning points, the Franck-Condon factors and r-centroids have been obtained. Dissociation energies D e X1σ+ = (38470 ±3503) cm-1 and De A1∏ = (14415 ±3509) cm-1 for the molecule under consideration have been estimated.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaThe 1 – v’’ bands progression of the B2Σ+ - X2Σ+ system of 12C17O+.(Elsevier (Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy), 2006-08-30) Szajna, Wojciech; Kępa, Ryszard; Hakalla, Rafał; Zachwieja, Mirosław
Pokaż więcej The B2Σ+ → X2Σ+ (0-1, 2, 3, 4 progression) electronic transition of 12C17O+ was first observed and analyzed by Szajna and Kȩpa [Spectrochim. Acta A 65 (2006) 1014-1020]. We have now extended our previous studies. The use of high resolution conventional spectroscopic techniques has allowed first rotational analysis of the 1-2, 1-3, 1-4 and 1-5 bands of the first negative system in the 37,000-43,000 cm-1 spectral region. Approximately 500 transition wavenumbers were measured with an estimated accuracy of 0.005 cm-1. The present data were combined with the previous measurements to yield an improved set of molecular constants for the B2Σ+(v′ = 0, 1) and X2Σ+(v″ = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). The v′ = 1 and v″ = 5 vibrational levels were observed for the first time and the main molecular constants are (in cm-1, one standard deviation in parentheses). {A table is presented}. The principal equilibrium molecular constants for the B2Σ+ and X2Σ+ states have also been derived and the vibrational terms values for the ground and excited states have been calculated. © 2006 Elsevier Inc.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaThe B2Σ+ - X2Σ+ transition of 12C17O+: the 2 – v'' progression.(Taylor&Francis Group (Spectroscopy Letters), 2007) Szajna, Wojciech; Kępa, Ryszard; Hakalla, Rafał; Zachwieja, Mirosław
Pokaż więcej Three new bands of the B2Σ+-X2Σ+ system of 12C17O+ have been investigated using conventional spectroscopic techniques. The spectra were observed in a graphite hollow-cathode lamp by discharging molecular oxygen (enriched in about 45% of the 17O2 isotope) under 1.0 Torr pressure. The rotational analysis of the 2-4, 2-5, and 2-6 bands was performed with the effective Hamiltonian of Brown (Brown et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 1979; 74: 294-318). Molecular constants were derived from a merge calculation, including both the current wavenumbers and the spectroscopic data published by the authors previously. The principal equilibrium constants for the ground state of 12C17O+ are ωe=2185.9658(84), ωexe = 14.7674(11), Be=1.927001(38), αe=1.8236(22) × 10-2, γe=-0.331(28) × 10-4, De=6.041(12) × 10-6, βe=0.100(31) × 10-7 cm-1, and the equilibrium constants for the excited state are σe=45876.499(15), ωe=1712. 201(12), ωexe=27.3528(39), Be=1.754109(35), αe=2.8706(57) × 10-2, γe = -1.15(19) × 10-4, De=7.491(20) × 10-6, βe=2.13(12) × 10-7, γe = 2.0953(97) × 10-2, and αγe=-9.46(59) × 10-4 cm-1, respectively. Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curves were constructed for the B2Σ+ and X2Σ+ states of this molecule, and Franck-Condon factors were calculated for the vibrational bands of the B-X system. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaTHE CHANGES OF AIR GAP IN INDUCTIVE ENGINES AS(DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS - American Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 2007) Twaróg, Bogusław; Pękala, Robert; Bartman, Jacek; Gomółka, Zbigniew
Pokaż więcej The method of analyzing vibration of electric engines or electro-magnetic generators proposed in the work is based on the analyzing of course current of load. In considerations were used the method based on specialized mathematics model and advanced calculation technique. It allow to create of patterns for artifcial neural networks. These patterns represented different states of machine for the diagnostic and they are enable to define precisely the changes caused by failure. Received experiments showed that the designed architecture of the net enables to achieve good properties of generalization correct answer for entrance date which weren't a part of training process.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaFinding the Curie Temperature for Ferromagnetic Materials(The Physics Teacher, 2007-01) Kizowski, Czesław; Budzik, Sylwia; Cebulski, Józef
Pokaż więcej The laboratory exercise described in this paper is based on a well-known qualitative demonstration of Curie temperature.1 A long ferromagnetic wire, in the form of a spiral, is attracted to a strong permanent magnet placed near its midpoint (see Fig. 1). The temperature of the wire is increased by passing a current through it. When the temperature reaches the Curie point, the wire becomes paramagnetic and is no longer strongly attracted to the magnet. We have developed this demonstration into a quantitative experiment by providing an accurate way to determine the temperature at which the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition occurs.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaAnalysis of the A1П State on the Basis of the Douglas – Herzberg Bands System in the CH+ Ion Molecule.(Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Acta Physica Polonica A), 2007-06) Hakalla, Rafał; Kępa, Rafał; Szajna, Wojciech; Zachwieja, Mirosław
Pokaż więcej This paper presents an attempt of examining the irregularities appearing in a complicated A1II state of the CH+ molecule with their reasons provided. By using the experimental data for the A1Π- X1Σ+ bands system of the 12CH+ ion radical, it was proved that the vibrational and rotational quanta of the upper state reveal the same unusual behaviour, i.e. very clear nonlinear dependence on vibrational quantum number (v′ ≥ 3) of the upper state. Therefore, upper vibrational levels (v′ ≥ 3) of the A1Π state cannot be determined by means of the equilibrium constants calculated in the previous works. Due to so far unidentified A1Π state perturbations, the reduction of the wave numbers to the rovibronic parameters was carried out by means of individual, band-by-band analysis method, using with this end in view the nonlinear least squares method introduced by Curl and Dane, and Watson. This method allowed one to make already calculated constants of the rovibronic structure of regular lower state X1Σ + of A-X system independent of possible perturbations appearing in the upper state of A1Π of this system. It also enabled one to calculate for the first time the real (perturbed) term values for the A 1Π (v′ = 0, 1, 2, and 3) state of the 12CH + ion molecule. These values suggest that rotational irregularities in the A1Π state examined are negligibly small, In order to confirm the nonexistence of rotational perturbations in the A1Π (v′ = 0, 1, 2, and 3) state, up to the observed Jmax level, appropriate graphs of functions fx(J) and gx(J) introduced by Gero and Kovács, where x = Q, PR, and PR, were drawn. Also, their course was analysed in detail.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaHierarchical Classifiers for Complex Spatio-temporal Concepts(Springer-Verlag, 2008) Bazan, Jan
Pokaż więcej The aim of the paper is to present rough set methods of constructing hierarchical classifiers for approximation of complex concepts. Classifiers are constructed on the basis of experimental data sets and domain knowledge that are mainly represented by concept ontology. Information systems, decision tables and decision rules are basic tools for modeling and constructing such classifiers. The general methodology presented here is applied to approximate spatial complex concepts and spatio-temporal complex concepts defined for (un)structured complex objects, to identify the behavioral patterns of complex objects, and to the automated behavior planning for such objects when the states of objects are represented by spatio-temporal concepts requiring approximation. We describe the results of computer experiments performed on real-life data sets from a vehicular traffic simulator and on medical data concerning the infant respiratory failure.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaAnisotropy of the Conductivity in the Asymmetric Quantum Wells(ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, 2008) Majchrowski, Klaudiusz; Paśko, Wioletta
Pokaż więcej Gorbatsevich et al. and Kibis suggested that a number of interesting galvano-magnetic effects could be observed in quantum structures where the symmetry with respect to the space coordinates inversion and time- -reversal are broken simultaneously. In the paper of Kibis for example, the in¯nite triangular quantum well in an external magnetic field was considered and the anisotropy of electron momentum transfer due to interaction with phonons was predicted. The role of magnetic ¯eld was to provide the time- -invariance breaking. In this work we considered the e®ect of anisotropy of electron momentum transfer due to interaction with polarized light using more realistic model of ¯nite triangular quantum well. This anisotropy leads to the anisotropy of the real part of photoconductivity and as it follows from our calculations, the e®ect though not very great, could be measurable for the attainable values of magnetic ¯eld B ¼ 5 T and the widths of quantum well.Pokaż więcej - PozycjaNANOTECHNOLOGY AS A PART OF PHYSICS TEACHING AT SCHOOL(Concepts of Physics, 2008-01) Budzik, Sylwia; Kizowski, Czesław
Pokaż więcej The progress in teaching should be in accord with the progress of science, that’s why the subject of teaching must be supplemented by the elements of modern knowledge which permit pupils to understand better what happens around us. The end of XX century is characterised by the rapid development of nanotechnology, which we deal with in this paper.Pokaż więcej